Lipid profile among Moroccan overweight women and breast cancer: a case-control study
Fatima Zahra Laamiri,1 Azzedine Otmani,2 Samir Ahid,1,3 Amina Barkat1
1Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy/Research Team in Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition, Mohammed V-Souissi University, Rabat, Morocco; 2National Institute of Oncology, Rabat, Morocco; 3Pharmacy Unit, National Institute of Oncology, Rabat, Morocco
Background: Breast cancer has become the most common type of cancer in Morocco. In 2005, 127 new cases in women, representing 33.5% of female cancers, were added to the National Center of Oncology registry. The incidence of breast cancer is higher in Morocco than in the three other Maghreb countries, and it is significantly lower than in Western countries where it stands at over 80 cases per 100,000 people.
Purpose: This 2-year long case-control study was conducted to assess the causal relationship between the lipid profile of overweight Moroccan women and breast cancer risk.
Patients and methods: Overweight female patients with breast cancer (n = 400) were compared to 400 healthy controls at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. The epidemiological data on the disease and physical activity were gathered by interviewing the patients who had their lipid profile measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol). Body mass index was used to determine if patients were overweight.
Results: Univariate analysis revealed a significant association between breast cancer and high body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25–1.37), menopause (OR = 2.68; 95% CI = 2–3.55), lack of physical activity (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.21–0.31), and triglyceridemia (OR = 3.78; 95% CI = 2.73–5.23). Multivariate analysis revealed that the statistically significant increase in breast cancer risk was associated with a higher body mass index (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.04–1.18), menopause (OR = 9.11; 95% CI = 4.76–17.47), and high triglyceride levels (OR = 4.5; 95% CI = 2.94–6.88). However, a protective effect for physical activity was detected (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.26–0.48).
Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a connection between hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and breast cancer risk and confirms a protective role for physical activity on breast cancer risk.
Keywords: breast cancer, lipid profile, dietary fat intake, overweight, physical activity
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