Knowledge and pharmaceutical care practice regarding inhaled therapy among registered and unregistered pharmacists: an urgent need for a patient-oriented health care educational program in Iraq
Authors Abdulameer SA
Received 17 November 2017
Accepted for publication 16 January 2018
Published 12 March 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 879—888
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Charles Downs
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer
Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq
Background: Inadequate inhaled aerosol device demonstration and technique by health care professionals can lead to poor disease control. The aims of this study were to develop and validate Knowledge of Aerosol Tool (KAT) among registered and unregistered pharmacists and to assess the pharmaceutical care practice among registered pharmacists.
Methods: The KAT and pharmaceutical care practice questionnaires were developed and modified from previous reports, then an observational cross-sectional study with a convenience sample size of 340 was carried out among registered and unregistered pharmacists. The validation process included face validity and reliability, and item analysis was carried out.
Results: The results showed good face validity and reliability with Cronbach’s alpha test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient for test–retest of 0.637 and 0.440, respectively. The KAT item difficulty index for most items was between 0.130 and 0.667. The total KAT scores for registered and unregistered pharmacists were 10.13±3.152 and 8.29±2.930, respectively, which revealed inadequate pharmacist knowledge of inhaled aerosol device technique and therapies. In addition, only 38.38% of the total sample was found to have a high KAT level score. The results showed higher KAT scores among males, pharmacists with a family history of respiratory disease, and pharmacists with a master’s degree. For the registered pharmacists, there were positive correlations between the total KAT score and the total pharmaceutical care practice score and the average number of patients with a respiratory disease seen by the pharmacist weekly, respectively. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the total KAT score and its aerosol administration subscale with pharmacotherapy care and comorbid disease management practice care.
Conclusion: The KAT showed good validity and reliability, hence, it can be used for training or educational purposes. This study showed that professional knowledge and pharmaceutical care are a major concern in Iraq. KAT implementation depends on the whole educational process from undergraduate study to residence training.
Keywords: aerosol knowledge, pharmaceutical care, validation, pharmacist
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