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Knockdown of Sall4 inhibits intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell migration and invasion in ICC-9810 cells

Authors Zhu L, Huang F, Deng G, Nie W, Huang W, Xu H, Zheng S, Yi Z, Wan T

Received 25 February 2016

Accepted for publication 23 April 2016

Published 24 August 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 5297—5305


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Venktesh Shirure

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Faris Farassati

Lei Zhu, Feizhou Huang, Gang Deng, Wanpin Nie, Wei Huang, Hongbo Xu, Shaopeng Zheng, Zhongjie Yi, Tao Wan

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: In spite of improvements in surgical technology, the resectability and curability of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are still low. Our previous study showed that the strong Sal-like protein 4 (Sall4)-positive cases had shorter overall survival compared to Sall4-negative cases, indicating an oncogenic role of Sall4 in ICC. In this study, we aimed to explore the precise mechanism of Sall4 on ICC cell invasion and metastasis. We evaluated the expression of Sall4, PTEN, and Bmi-1 in 28 cases of adjacent tissues and 175 cases of ICC tissues by using immunohistochemical staining. We found that the expression of Sall4 and Bmi-1 was significantly increased in ICC tissues compared with the adjacent tissues, while PTEN expression was reduced in ICC tissues compared with the adjacent tissues, and there was a reverse relationship between Sall4 and PTEN in ICC, whereas there was a positive correlation in Sall4 and Bmi-1 expression in ICC. In addition, overall survival analysis showed that ICC patients with low PTEN exhibited a worse prognosis than ICC patients with high PTEN, and lower Bmi-1 expression showed a better prognosis than ICC patients with high Bmi-1. By a battery of experiments in vitro, we demonstrated that Sall4 promotes ICC cell proliferation, and progression of ICC might be through PTEN/PI3K/Akt and Bmi-1/Wnt/β-catenin signaling and enhancing epithelial–mesenchymal transition process. Thus, Sall4 may be a potential target for the treatment of ICC metastasis.

intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, Sal-like protein 4, PTEN, Bmi-1, metastasis, EMT

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