Back to Journals » International Journal of General Medicine » Volume 4

Key role of congestion in natural history of heart failure

Authors Guglin M

Published 15 August 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 585—591


Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Maya Guglin
University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

Abstract: The natural course of heart failure with decreased and preserved systolic function is almost identical. The current concept of heart failure where decreased cardiac output plays the major role does not explain this similarity. We suggest a revised concept of heart failure where congestion plays the leading role. While congestion is almost invariably present in heart failure with normal and with reduced systolic function, the low output syndrome is only present in heart failure with reduced systolic function. The small difference in morbidity and mortality in favor of heart failure with preserved systolic function reflects the contribution of low output syndrome to the natural course of the disease. Congestion can result from low output or from multiple other conditions, but severity of congestion is the major determinant of progression of heart failure.

Keywords: heart failure, congestion, ejection fraction

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]