Is Echocardiography Mandatory for All Streptococcus gallolyticus Subsp. pasteurianus Bacteremia?
Received 2 June 2020
Accepted for publication 9 July 2020
Published 20 July 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 2425—2432
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Worapong Nasomsong, Vasin Vasikasin, Jantima Traipattanakul, Dhitiwat Changpradub
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
Correspondence: Dhitiwat Changpradub
Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, 317 Ratchavithi Road, Ratchadhevi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Background: Streptococcus gallolyticus, formerly known as one of the Streptococcus bovis group, is frequently associated with endocarditis. Current guidelines recommended diagnostic work-up for endocarditis among patients with S. gallolyticus bacteremia. However, S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, was found to be associated with neonatal sepsis and liver diseases and is less commonly associated with endocarditis compared with S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. Our study aimed to identify the risk factors for S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus endocarditis to help select the patients for echocardiography.
Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, medical records from all adult patients with S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus isolated from blood cultures at Phramongkutklao Hospital from 2009 to 2015 were reviewed. Patients who had mixed bacteremia or missing records were excluded from the study.
Results: During the study period, S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus was isolated among 106 individuals. Mean age was 66.9± 15.6 years. Most patients (61.3%) were male, with cirrhosis as the most common underlying diseases (46.2%), followed by malignancy and chronic kidney disease. Most common manifestations included primary bacteremia (44.3%), followed by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (23.6%). Infective endocarditis was found among 9 patients. No patients with cirrhosis or single blood specimen of bacteremia had endocarditis (RR 0; p-value 0.003, and RR 1.35; p-value 0.079). The common complications associated with endocarditis were acute respiratory failure (RR 4.32; p-value 0.05), whereas acute kidney injury was a protective factor (RR 0; p-value 0.01). Among 76 patients who had records of 2-year follow-up, no new diagnosis of endocarditis or malignancy was observed.
Conclusion: Among patients with S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus bacteremia, echocardiography might not be needed among patients with cirrhosis and without sustained bacteremia.
Keywords: Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus, endocarditis, cirrhosis, bacteremia
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