Iodine Status and Discretionary Choices Consumption Among Primary School Children, Kinondoni Tanzania
Received 10 June 2020
Accepted for publication 4 September 2020
Published 21 September 2020 Volume 2020:11 Pages 359—368
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Roosy Aulakh
Mario S Venance,1,2 Haikael D Martin,1 Judith Kimiywe3
1Department of Food Biotechnology and Nutrition Sciences, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2Department of Health, Social Welfare, and Nutrition, Sikonge District Council, Sikonge, Tanzania; 3Department of Foods, Nutrition, and Dietetics, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
Correspondence: Mario S Venance Tel +255 686 565 054
Background: Tanzania is one of the countries where excessive iodine intake has been reported, to intervene, the identification of possible causes is required. This study aimed to assess iodine status and determine the critical contributors to excessive iodine intakes in schoolchildren aged 8– 14 years.
Materials and Methods: A total of 288 school children were randomly selected in this school-based cross-sectional study in Kinondoni municipality, Tanzania. Household salt samples were analyzed using iodine rapid field test kit while that was collected from retailers/wholesalers by iodometric titration. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for iodine levels using a modified microplate method following the Sandell‐Kolthoff reaction. A lifestyle questionnaire was administered to schoolchildren to assess their eating frequency of discretionary foods and salts.
Results: The mean salt iodine content was 53.94 ± 13.02, and over 90% of household salt was iodized. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 401 μg/L indicating excessive iodine intake, and one-third of the children had UIC > 500 μg/L. Nearly all school children consume discretionary choices as snacks or part of a meal. Potato chips and fried cassava were the top two discretionary choices consumed with discretionary salt use (67.3%). Potato chips (adjusted odds ratio [AOR=9.04, 95% CI: 3.61– 22.63]), fried cassava (AOR=11.08, 95% CI: 3.45– 35.54) and groundnuts consumption for 4– 7 days/week (AOR = 0.30 95% CI: 0.09– 1.0) were significantly associated with iodine intake.
Conclusion and Recommendation: The evidence of excessive iodine intakes observed in previous studies and in this study should alert the policymakers to consider adjustment of the amount of iodine added to salt along with the obligation of reducing discretionary foods and salt intake.
Keywords: excessive iodine intake, discretionary choices, urinary iodine concentration, school children, salt iodization
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