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Iodine deficiency and its associated factors among primary school children in Anchar district, Eastern Ethiopia

Authors Muktar M, Roba KT, Mengistie B, Gebremichael B

Received 20 February 2018

Accepted for publication 30 May 2018

Published 4 September 2018 Volume 2018:9 Pages 89—95

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S165933

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Ms Justinn Cochran

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roosy Aulakh


Muzemil Muktar,1 Kedir Teji Roba,2 Bezatu Mengistie,3 Berhe Gebremichael4

1West Hararghe Zone Health Department, Chiro, Ethiopia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 3Department of Environmental Health Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 4School of Public Health, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia

Background: Iodine deficiency is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Most of the studies in Ethiopia were done on clinical goiter without assessing the subclinical iodine deficiency. Therefore, there was a need to study the magnitude and associated factors of iodine deficiency among school-age children in Eastern Ethiopia.
Subjects and methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was used to assess the iodine level of 200 primary school children aged 6–12 years who were selected by using the multistage sampling technique. The study used an interview-administered questionnaire and checklists to collect data from the respondents. Data were entered to EpiData version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 22.0 for analysis. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were conducted, and statistical significance was declared at p value ≤0.05.
Results: The median urinary iodine concentration of the children was 146 µg/L, and 31% had median urinary iodine concentration below the acceptable level (<100 µg/L). Female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.12, 95% CI: 1.52, 6.39), family size ≥5 (AOR=2.24, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.75), having no awareness of a balanced diet (AOR=3.25, 95% CI: 1.37, 7.71), and cabbage ­consumption ≥2 times per week (AOR=3.01, 95% CI: 1.31, 6.93) were the significant associated factors.
Conclusion and recommendation: Ethiopia is implementing the universal iodization of salt. However, urinary iodine deficiency and utilization of inadequately iodized salt were high in the study area. Therefore, the health sectors of the study site should disseminate messages to increase the awareness on iodized salt, iodine-rich foods, and goiterogens.

Keywords: iodine deficiency, primary school, children, Anchar district

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