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Investigating the expression, effect and tumorigenic pathway of PADI2 in tumors

Authors Guo W, Zheng YB, Xu B, Ma F, Li C, Zhang XQ, Wang Y, Chang XT

Received 14 July 2015

Accepted for publication 25 January 2017

Published 8 March 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 1475—1485

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S92389

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Ram Prasad

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr William Cho

Wei Guo,1,2,* Yabing Zheng,2,* Bing Xu,1 Fang Ma,1 Chang Li,3 Xiaoqian Zhang,4 Yao Wang,1 Xiaotian Chang1

1Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, 2Obstetrical Department, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 3Pathology Department, Tengzhou Central People’s Hospital, Tengzhou, 4Clinical Laboratory, PKU Care Luzhong Hospital, Zibo, Shandong, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) catalyzes the conversion of arginine residues to citrulline residues, termed citrullination. Recent studies have suggested that PAD isoform 2 (PADI2) plays an important role in tumors, although its tumorigenic effect and mechanism are largely unknown.
Materials and methods: Immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to investigate the expression level of PADI2 in various tumor tissues and patient blood samples, respectively. MNK-45 and Bel-7402 tumor cell lines originating from gastric and liver tumors, respectively, were treated with anti-PADI2 siRNA, and the subsequent cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration were observed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays, including Cancer PathwayFinder, Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes, p53 Signaling Pathway, Signal Transduction Pathway and Tumor Metastasis PCR arrays, were used to investigate the tumorigenic pathway of PADI2 in the siRNA-treated tumor cells. This analysis was verified by real-time PCR.
Results: Immunohistochemistry detected significantly increased expression of PADI2 in invasive breast ductal carcinoma, cervical squamous cell carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, liver hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, ovarian serous papillary adenocarcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma samples. ELISA detected a twofold increase in PADI2 expression in the blood of 48.3% of patients with liver cancer, 38% of patients with cervical carcinoma and 32% of patients with gastric carcinoma. Increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and migration were observed in the anti-PADI2 siRNA-treated MNK-45 cells, and increased cell proliferation and migration and decreased apoptosis were observed in the treated Bel-7402 cells with suppressed PADI2 expression. PCR arrays and real-time PCR detected significantly decreased CXCR2 and EPO expression in the MNK-45 cells and Bel-7402 cells, respectively, with the anti-PADI2 siRNA treatments.
Conclusion: PADI2 expression is increased in many types of tumor tissues and patient blood samples. PADI2 may advance abnormal cell behavior in gastric cancers by mediating CXCR2, a well-known gene that stimulates cell proliferation and invasion. However, PADI2 might have deleterious effects on tumor growth and metastasis in liver tumor cells by regulating the expression of EPO, a gene with controversial functions in tumor growth. The results suggest that the effect of PADI2 on tumorigenesis is multifactorial, depending on the tumor type.

Keywords: PADI2, tumorigenesis, pathway, CXCR2, EPO

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