Intratumoral chemotherapy for lung cancer: re-challenge current targeted therapies
Authors Hohenforst-Schmidt W, Zarogoulidis P, Darwiche K, Vogl T, Goldberg EP, Huang H, Simoff M, Li Q, Browning R, Turner JF, Le Pivert P, Spyratos D, Zarogoulidis K, Celikoglu SI, Celikoglu F, Brachmann J
Received 8 April 2013
Accepted for publication 5 June 2013
Published 18 July 2013 Volume 2013:7 Pages 571—583
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,2,3 Kaid Darwiche,3 Thomas Vogl,4 Eugene P Goldberg,5 Haidong Huang,6 Michael Simoff,7 Qiang Li,6 Robert Browning,8 J Francis Turner,9 Patrick Le Pivert,10 Dionysios Spyratos,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,2 Seyhan I Celikoglu,11 Firuz Celikoglu,11 Johannes Brachmann1
1II Medical Clinic, Coburg Hospital, University of Wuerzburg, Coburg, Germany; 2Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 4Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; 5Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, FL, USA; 6Department of Respiratory Diseases, Changhai Hospital/First Affiliated Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 7Bronchoscopy and Interventional Pulmonology, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, MI, USA; 8Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Interventional Pulmonology, National Naval Medical Center, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Bethesda, USA; 9Pulmonary Medicine, University of Nevada School of Medicine, National Supercomputing Center for Energy and the Environment University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA; 10Interventional Drug Delivery Systems and Strategies (ID2S2), Medical Cryogenics, Jupiter, FL, USA; 11Pulmonary Department, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
Abstract: Strategies to enhance the already established doublet chemotherapy regimen for lung cancer have been investigated for more than 20 years. Initially, the concept was to administer chemotherapy drugs locally to the tumor site for efficient diffusion through passive transport within the tumor. Recent advances have enhanced the diffusion of pharmaceuticals through active transport by using pharmaceuticals designed to target the genome of tumors. In the present study, five patients with non-small cell lung cancer epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) negative stage IIIa–IV International Union Against Cancer 7 (UICC-7), and with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 2 scores were administered platinum-based doublet chemotherapy using combined intratumoral-regional and intravenous route of administration. Cisplatin analogues were injected at 0.5%–1% concentration within the tumor lesion and proven malignant lymph nodes according to pretreatment histological/cytological results and the concentration of systemic infusion was decreased to 70% of a standard protocol. This combined intravenous plus intratumoral-regional chemotherapy is used as a first line therapy on this short series of patients. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of direct treatment of involved lymph nodes with cisplatin by endobronchial ultrasound drug delivery with a needle without any adverse effects. The initial overall survival and local response are suggestive of a better efficacy compared to established doublet cisplatin–based systemic chemotherapy in (higher) standard concentrations alone according to the UICC 7 database expected survival. An extensive search of the literature was performed to gather information of previously published literature of intratumoral chemo-drug administration and formulation for this treatment modality. Our study shows a favorable local response, more than a 50% reduction, for a massive tumor mass after administration of five sessions of intratumoral chemotherapy plus two cycles of low-dose intravenous chemotherapy according to our protocol. These encouraging results (even in very sick ECOG 2 patients with central obstructive non-small cell lung cancer having a worse prognosis and quality of life than a non-small cell lung cancer in ECOG 0 of the same tumor node metastasis [TNM]-stage without central obstruction) for a chemotherapy-only protocol that differs from conventional cisplatin-based doublet chemotherapy by the route, target site, and dose paves the way for broader applications of this technique. Finally, future perspectives of this treatment and pharmaceutical design for intratumoral administration are presented.
Keywords: cisplatin, lymph nodes, chemotherapy, intratumoral, lung cancer
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