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iNOS is associated with tumorigenicity as an independent prognosticator in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Authors Liu S, Jiang J, Huang L, Jiang Y, Yu N, Liu X, Lv Y, Li H, Zou L, Peng C, Yu X, Jiang B

Received 14 March 2019

Accepted for publication 12 July 2019

Published 26 August 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 8005—8022

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S208773

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Nicola Ludin

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Eileen O'Reilly


Sulai Liu,1 Jinqiong Jiang,2 Linsheng Huang,3 Yu Jiang,4 Nanhui Yu,4 Xiehong Liu,4 Yuan Lv,5 Hao Li,1 Lianhong Zou,4 Chuang Peng,1 Xing Yu,6,7 Bo Jiang1

1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Hunan Research Center of Biliary Disease, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oncology, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 4Hunan Provincial Institute of Emergency Medicine, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 5Key Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology of Hunan Province, School of Medicine, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China; 6School of Medicine, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China; 7Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, Australia

Correspondence: Hao Li; Chuang Peng
Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Hunan Research Center of Biliary Disease, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410015, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 731 8392 9520
Fax +86 73183929520
Email lihao@hunnu.edu.cn; pengchuangcn@163.com

Background: Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has supposed to implicate in inflammation, infection, liver cirrhosis, and neoplastic diseases. This study was designed to explore the biological and clinical function of iNOS in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).
Methods: RT-PCR (Real-time quantitative PCR) and immunohistochemical staining were used to analyze the expression of iNOS in ICC and adjacent tissues. CCK8, transwell assays, flow cytometry were conducted to detect the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle. Western blotting was performed to detect the expression of target proteins. Multivariate analyses were conducted to analysis associates between clinicopathological values and survival.
Results: We found that levels of iNOS mRNA and protein were dramatically increased in ICC samples and positively correlated with complicated bile duct stone, differentiation, pathology T, pathology M, Wip1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. iNOS expression was significantly correlated with the poor survival of ICC patients. Furthermore, iNOS was high expression in ICC cell lines (QBC-939, ICC-9810, SSP-25) compare with human normal biliary epithelium cell line (HIBEpic); both iNOS knockdown and iNOS inhibitor (1400 W) suppressed cell proliferation, invasion, and migration though nitric oxide production in ICC cells. Down-regulation of iNOS also induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and ICC cell apoptosis. Moreover, iNOS knockdown treatment significantly decreased Wip1, MMP-9, and MMP-2 gene expression.
Conclusion: Lowly expressed iNOS-inhibited proliferation yet promoted apoptosis of ICC cells. Our data show targeted inhibition of iNOS in ICC may have therapeutic value.

Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, iNOS, prognosis


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