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Influence of immune activation and inflammatory response on cardiovascular risk associated with the human immunodeficiency virus

Authors Beltrán LM, Rubio-Navarro A, Amaro-Villalobos JM, Egido J, García-Puig J, Moreno JA

Received 29 May 2014

Accepted for publication 14 October 2014

Published 6 January 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 35—48

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S65885

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Daniel Duprez

Luis M Beltrán,1 Alfonso Rubio-Navarro,2 Juan Manuel Amaro-Villalobos,2 Jesús Egido,2–4 Juan García-Puig,1 Juan Antonio Moreno2

1Metabolic-Vascular Unit, Fundación IdiPAZ-Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 2Vascular, Renal, and Diabetes Research Lab, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain; 3Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Madrid, Spain; 4Fundación Renal Iñigo Alvarez de Toledo-Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigaciones Nefrológicas (FRIAT-IRSIN), Madrid, Spain

Abstract: Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased cardiovascular risk. Although initially this increased risk was attributed to metabolic alterations associated with antiretroviral treatment, in recent years, the attention has been focused on the HIV disease itself. Inflammation, immune system activation, and endothelial dysfunction facilitated by HIV infection have been identified as key factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection and summarize the latest knowledge on the relationship between traditional and novel inflammatory, immune activation, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers on the cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection.

Keywords: HIV, cardiovascular disease, immune activation, inflammation, antiretroviral therapy

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