Back to Browse Journals » Journal of Inflammation Research » Volume 2

Inflammatory mechanisms in the lung

Authors B Moldoveanu, P Otmishi, P Jani, J Walker, X Sarmiento, et al

Published 16 December 2008 Volume 2009:2 Pages 1—11


Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 6

B Moldoveanu1, P Otmishi1, P Jani1, J Walker1,2, X Sarmiento3, J Guardiola1, M Saad1, Jerry Yu1

1Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA, 40292; 2Department of Respiratory Therapy, Bellarmine University, Louisville, KY, USA, 40205; 3Intensive Care Medicine Service, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain 08916

Abstract: Inflammation is the body’s response to insults, which include infection, trauma, and hypersensitivity. The inflammatory response is complex and involves a variety of mechanisms to defend against pathogens and repair tissue. In the lung, inflammation is usually caused by pathogens or by exposure to toxins, pollutants, irritants, and allergens. During inflammation, numerous types of inflammatory cells are activated. Each releases cytokines and mediators to modify activities of other inflammatory cells. Orchestration of these cells and molecules leads to progression of inflammation. Clinically, acute inflammation is seen in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), whereas chronic inflammation is represented by asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because the lung is a vital organ for gas exchange, excessive inflammation can be life threatening. Because the lung is constantly exposed to harmful pathogens, an immediate and intense defense action (mainly inflammation) is required to eliminate the invaders as early as possible. A delicate balance between inflammation and anti-inflammation is essential for lung homeostasis. A full understanding of the underlying mechanisms is vital in the treatment of patients with lung inflammation. This review focuses on cellular and molecular aspects of lung inflammation during acute and chronic inflammatory states.

Keywords: inflammation, lung, inflammatory mediators, cytokines

Download Article [PDF] 

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at:

Readers of this article also read:

Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

Lee SY, Huh W, Jung JA, Yoo HM, Ko JW, Kim JR

Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2015, 9:4559-4563

Published Date: 10 August 2015

Development of acquired factor V inhibitor after treatment with ceftazidime: a case report and review of the literature

Cui QY, Shen HS, Wu TQ, Chen HF, Yu ZQ, Wang ZY

Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2015, 9:2395-2398

Published Date: 24 April 2015

Design and prediction of new anticoagulants as a selective Factor IXa inhibitor via three-dimensional quantitative structure-property relationships of amidinobenzothiophene derivatives

Gao JS, Tong XP, Chang YQ, He YX, Mei YD, Tan PH, Guo JL, Liao GC, Xiao GK, Chen WM, Zhou SF, Sun PH

Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2015, 9:1743-1759

Published Date: 23 March 2015

Evaluation of cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic properties of boldine in breast cancer using in vitro and in vivo models

Paydar M, Kamalidehghan B, Wong YL, Wong WF, Looi CY, Mustafa MR

Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2014, 8:719-733

Published Date: 6 June 2014

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of acetylsalicylic acid after intravenous and oral administration to healthy volunteers

Nagelschmitz J, Blunck M, Kraetzschmar J, Ludwig M, Wensing G, Hohlfeld T

Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications 2014, 6:51-59

Published Date: 19 March 2014

Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

Gado AM, Aldahmash BA

Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2013, 7:1245-1252

Published Date: 21 October 2013

Synergistic enhancement of cancer therapy using a combination of docetaxel and photothermal ablation induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes

Wang L, Zhang MY, Zhang N, Shi JJ, Zhang HL, Li M, Lu C, Zhang ZZ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:2641-2652

Published Date: 31 October 2011

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010

Pharmacokinetics and tolerance study of intravitreal injection of dexamethasone-loaded nanoparticles in rabbits

Linhua Zhang, Yue Li, Chao Zhang, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2009, 4:175-183

Published Date: 4 September 2009