Increased Virological Failure and Determinants Among HIV Patients on Highly Active Retroviral Therapy in Adigrat General Hospital, Northern Ethiopia, 2019: Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Received 27 February 2020
Accepted for publication 12 June 2020
Published 18 June 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 1863—1872
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Eric Nulens
Hadush Negash,1 Miglas Welay,2 Haftom Legese,1 Gebre Adhanom,1 Fitsum Mardu,3 Kebede Tesfay,3 Aderajew Gebrewahd,1 Brhane Berhe3
1Unit of Medical Microbiology, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Adigrat University, Tigrai, Ethiopia; 2Department of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Adigrat University, Tigrai, Ethiopia; 3Unit of Medical Parasitology, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Adigrat University, Tigrai, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Hadush Negash Email email@example.com
Background: In Ethiopia, despite the integrated implementation of antiretroviral therapy since 2005, the human immunodeficiency virus remains a public health concern. Managing and detecting antiretroviral treatment response is important to monitor the effectiveness of the therapy for individuals who experience failed virological response. An increased viral load indicating drug resistance or rapid progression of viral replication needs early detection. Hence, we aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of virological response among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Adigrat General Hospital from September to December, 2019, on a total of 422 participants. An interviewer-based questionnaire was used for data collection. About 4 mL of venous blood was collected for viral load determination. Patient records were reviewed for the previous results of CD4+ T cell counts. STATA 14 software was used to analyze the data. Descriptive data were presented using tables and figures. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A p-value < 0.05 was considered a statistically significant association.
Results: The mean age of study participants was 39 years (SD ± 12.2 years), of which 66.7% of them were females. The overall prevalence of virological failure was 12.47% (49/393). Moreover, the prevalence of virological failure was observed to be higher among tuberculosis co-infected individuals (26%) compared with the mono-infected HIV patients (6.3%). The odds of virological failure were higher among obese and undernourished individuals, tuberculosis co-infected, and individuals with the failure of immune reconstitution.
Conclusion: There was a high rate of virological failure among the study participants. Tuberculosis infection increased the rate of failure. There should be consistent assessment of viral load testing to determine the status of virological response for appropriate drug switching to clients. HIV patients with virological failure are recommended for switching of the antiretroviral therapy.
Keywords: Ethiopia, prevalence, HAART, HIV, HIV/TB co-infection, virological failure
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