In vitro activity of colistin mono- and combination therapy against colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, mechanism of resistance, and clinical outcomes of patients infected with colistin-resistant A. baumannii at a Thai university hospital
Authors Lertsrisatit Y, Santimaleeworagun W, Thunyaharn S, Traipattanakul J
Received 3 August 2017
Accepted for publication 18 September 2017
Published 20 November 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 437—443
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Yongyut Lertsrisatit,1 Wichai Santimaleeworagun,2,3 Sudaluck Thunyaharn,4 Jantima Traipattanakul5
1College of Pharmacotherapy Thailand, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand; 3Pharmaceutical Initiative for Resistant Bacteria and Infectious Diseases Working Group (PIRBIG) Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakorn Pathom, Thailand; 4Faculty of Medical Technology, Nakhonratchasima College, Nakhonratchasima, Thailand; 5Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
Purpose: Colistin is a drug of last resort for treating multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Unfortunately, colistin-resistant A. baumannii (CoR-AB) has been reported. Here, we examined the in vitro effect of mono- and combined antimicrobials against CoR-AB strains and their resistance mechanism, and evaluated the clinical outcomes of CoR-AB-infected patients.
Patients and methods: Seventeen clinical CoR-AB strains were isolated from patients at Phramongkutklao hospital, 2011–2015. The mono- and synergistic activities of colistin, tigecycline, sulbactam, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, fosfomycin, and cotrimoxazole were examined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration index. Clonal relationship and resistance genes were determined by repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. The effect of carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone combined with colistin was used to test efflux pump involvement. Patient treatment outcomes were also reported.
Results: The most prevalent infection in CoR-AB patients was pneumonia (35.3%), and all patients were administered colistin combined with another agent. The 30-day mortality was 70.6%, and the colistin MIC range and MIC50 was 16–512 µg/mL and 64 µg/mL, respectively. All CoR-AB strains were sensitive to tigecycline. Sporadic isolates were susceptible to sulbactam, imipenem, meropenem, and cotrimoxazole. A synergistic or additive effect was observed for colistin plus imipenem or meropenem (16.7%), sulbactam (66.7%), or tigecycline (66.7%). The CoR-AB isolates could be divided into four different clones (A–D) with a high prevalence of group B (47.1%). Eight isolates harbored blaOXA23, blaIMP, blaKPC, and blaNDM, and one contained blaOXA23, blaIMP, and blaKPC, while the eight remaining isolates carried only blaOXA23. The MIC values of all strains were greatly reduced for colistin plus carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone.
Conclusion: CoR-AB clinical isolates exhibited very high colistin resistance and a high frequency of resistance genes. The mechanism of colistin resistance appears to be mediated via an efflux pump. Thus, certain antimicrobials could be used as salvage therapy for CoR-AB infection.
Keywords: synergism, salvage therapy, clinical outcomes
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