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Immunotherapy for the treatment of colorectal tumors: focus on approved and in-clinical-trial monoclonal antibodies

Authors Françoso A, Simioni PU

Received 5 August 2016

Accepted for publication 19 September 2016

Published 11 January 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 177—184

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S119036

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Sukesh Voruganti

Alex Françoso,1 Patricia Ucelli Simioni1–3

1Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Americana, Americana, 2Department of Genetics, Evolution and Bioagents, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, Campinas, 3Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biosciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract: Colorectal cancer is considered a disease of the elderly population. Since the number of geriatric patients continues to rise, monoclonal antibody therapy is the most promising therapy in the recent research. Presently, the monoclonal antibodies most frequently used in the treatment of colorectal tumors are bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, and ramucirumab. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that acts on VEGF. Cetuximab and panitumumab act on EGFR. Ramucirumab binds directly to the ligand-binding pocket of VEGFR-2 to block the binding of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. These monoclonal antibodies, alone or in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy, are presenting good results and are increasing patient survival, despite the side effects. Due to the limited number of molecules available, several studies are trying to develop new monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of colorectal tumors. Among those being studied, some recent molecules are in phase I and/or II trials and are yielding advantageous results, such as anti-DR5, anti-Fn14, anti-IGF-1R, anti-EGFR, anti-NRP1, and anti-A33 antibodies. This has been successful in reducing side effects and in treating nonresponsive patients.

Keywords: monoclonal antibodies, colorectal tumor, bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, ramucirumab

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