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Identification of PGAM1 as a putative therapeutic target for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma metastasis using quantitative proteomics

Authors Liu X, Weng Y, Liu P, Sui Z, Zhou L, Huang Y, Zhang L, Zhang Y, Tan X

Received 13 January 2018

Accepted for publication 26 March 2018

Published 6 June 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 3345—3357


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Geoffrey Pietersz

Xinlu Liu,1 Yejing Weng,2 Peng Liu,1 Zhigang Sui,2 Lei Zhou,1 Yinpeng Huang,1 Lihua Zhang,2 Yukui Zhang,2 Xiaodong Tan,1

1First Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China; 2CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Dalian 116023, China

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive gastrointestinal cancer characterized by an extremely low survival rate because of early metastasis. Identifying satisfactory therapeutic targets associated with metastasis is crucial to improve the treatment effect of PDAC.
Materials and methods: In this research, we used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-assisted sample preparation method preparing protein sample and nano-reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis to perform the comparative proteomics of two homologous hamster pancreatic cancer cell lines that are different in metastatic ability: PC-1.0 (highly metastatic) and PC-1 (weakly metastatic). Verifications are through immunohistochemistry on clinical human PDAC pathologic tissues as well as by Western blot of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. siRNA silencing methods were used to study the effect of molecules on invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cell lines.
Results: Bioinformatic analysis indicated that a total of 141 differentially expressed proteins (82 upregulated and 59 downregulated in PC-1.0 cells) were identified showing obviously differential expression (>1.5-fold change). These differentially expressed proteins were involved in a number of different biologic functions, metabolic pathways, and pathophysiologic processes. Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) and HSPE1 are the top two upregulated proteins, and PDIA3 and CALR are the top two downregulated proteins in PC-1.0 cells compared to PC-1 cells. PGAM1 and HSPE1 showed higher expressions in PDAC tissue with clinical metastasis and highly metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines PC-1.0 and Aspc-1. PDIA3 and CALR showed higher expressions in weakly metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines PC-1 and Capan-2. The Western blot results were consistent with the MS quantification data. Silencing PGAM1 was found to decrease the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cell lines with statistical significance, especially in highly metastatic PC-1.0 and Aspc-1 cell lines.
Conclusion: These data indicated that PGAM1 may be a potential therapeutic target for PDAC metastasis.

Keywords: SILAC, PDAC, metastasis, PGAM1

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