Back to Journals » ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research » Volume 12

Humanistic and Economic Burden of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of Two Systematic Literature Reviews

Authors Lee LJ, Kwon CS, Forsythe A, Mamolo CM, Masters ET, Jacobs IA

Received 31 July 2020

Accepted for publication 29 October 2020

Published 23 November 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 693—709


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Giorgio Lorenzo Colombo

Lauren J Lee,1 Christina S Kwon,2 Anna Forsythe,2 Carla M Mamolo,3 Elizabeth T Masters,1 Ira A Jacobs4

1Patient Health and Impact, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA; 2Evidence Generation, Purple Squirrel Economics, New York, NY, USA; 3Patient Health and Impact, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA; 4Worldwide Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA

Correspondence: Lauren J Lee
Patient and Health Impact, Pfizer Inc, 235 East 42nd Street, MS 219-6-1, New York, NY 10017, USA
Tel +1 929-505-6211

Purpose: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a malignancy restricted to the inner lining of the bladder. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) following transurethral resection of the bladder tumor is the mainstay first-line treatment for high-risk NMIBC patients. Two systematic literature reviews (SLRs) were conducted to further assess the current evidence on BCG use in NMIBC and the humanistic and economic burden of disease.
Methods: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, Embase® and MEDLINE® were searched using the Ovid platform to identify interventional or real-world evidence studies on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and economic burden in NMIBC. Limited evidence was found from initial economic SLR searches in NMIBC, so additional targeted searches for bladder cancer were conducted to expand findings.
Results: Fifty-nine publications were included in the HRQoL SLR, of which 23 reported HRQoL and symptoms in NMIBC. At diagnosis, HRQoL was comparable with population norms but worsened considerably 2 years following diagnosis. Maintenance therapy with intravesical BCG was associated with reduced HRQoL, and treatment-related adverse events (AEs) resembled typical NMIBC symptoms. Twenty-two studies reported decreasing BCG compliance over time. Common AEs with BCG were frequent urination, lower urinary tract symptoms, pain, and hematuria. Forty-two publications were included in the economic SLR, of which nine assessed healthcare costs and resource use in NMIBC or bladder cancer. High-risk disease and high-intensity treatment were associated with increased healthcare costs.
Conclusion: NMIBC has a considerable symptomatic, HRQoL, and economic burden. Symptoms persisted and HRQoL worsened despite intravesical BCG treatment. NMIBC is a costly disease, with higher healthcare costs associated with increased risk of disease progression and recurrence. There is a high unmet need for safe and effective treatments that reduce the risk of disease progression and recurrence, provide symptomatic relief, and improve HRQoL for patients.

Keywords: NMIBC, health-related quality of life, symptoms, costs

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]