Hospital-based incidence of maternal heart failure during pregnancy in Nigeria
Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Adetunji Oladeni Adeniji,3 Oluseyi Olaboyede Atanda,3 Adebayo Duyile Adekunle3
1Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria
Purpose: To determine the incidence of heart failure during pregnancy and incriminated cardiac lesions, as well as maternal and fetal outcomes in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital (LTH), Osogbo, Southwest Nigeria.
Methods: This study was a retrospective, descriptive review of all cases of heart failure during pregnancy based on data retrieved from the medical records of LTH over a 7-year period from January 2004 to December 2010. Analysis of these data was carried out using SPSS 17. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Committee of LTH.
Results: A total of 4523 patients delivered babies over the 7-year period, ten (2.2/1000) of which had cardiac decompensation. All patients were not registered at LTH for antenatal care (unbooked), with 70% of them aged 18–24 years. Fifty percent were primigravidae and the majority of them presented with symptoms in the second and third trimester. There were two cases of maternal deaths recorded and three cases of fetal/perinatal mortality. Only one case of congenital heart disease (pulmonary stenosis) and no cases of rheumatic heart disease were found.
Conclusion: The data suggests that heart failure during pregnancy is uncommon in Southwest Nigeria. However, it occurs more often in young, unbooked primigravid women. Efforts should be aimed at encouraging early booking for antenatal care and a full cardiovascular evaluation to prevent associated maternal and fetal/perinatal morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: heart failure, pregnancy, cardiac disease, fetal outcome, maternal outcome
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