High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations among patients with and without diabetes in a multiethnic population of Singapore: CREDENCE Study
Rinkoo Dalan1, Michelle Jong1, Siew-Pang Chan4,5, Robert Hawkins2, Robin Choo6, Brenda Lim1, May L Tan3, Melvin KS Leow1,6
1Department of Endocrinology, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, 3Health Enrichment Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 4School of Business, SIM University, Singapore; 5Faculty of Health Sciences, La Trobe University, Australia; 6Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Brenner Centre for Molecular Medicine, Singapore
Objectives: To determine whether high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations differ between Chinese, Malays, and Indians with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus and to look for an association with demographic, metabolic and therapeutic variables.
Methods: Phase 1: We retrieved records of 50 Chinese, 51 Malay, and 67 Indian individuals who had routine health screening blood tests. Phase 2: We recruited 111 Chinese, 68 Malays, and 67 Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus and measured their hs-CRP in addition to standard laboratory tests.
Results: Phase 1: The median hs-CRP was 0.6 mg/L (0.2–6.2) in Chinese, 1.2 mg/L (0.2–7.9) in Malays, and 1.9 mg/L (0.2–10.0) in Indians. The Indians had higher hs-CRP compared to Chinese (P < 0.05) when adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), lipids, blood pressure, and smoking, and a significant correlation was seen between female sex, smoking status, fasting glucose and triglyceride concentration, and hs-CRP in all three ethnicities. Phase 2: The median hs-CRP was 1.2 mg/L (0.2–9.9) in Chinese, 2.2 mg/L (0.2–9.0) in Malays, and 2.3 mg/L (0.2–9.8) in Indians. Indians had higher hs-CRP when compared to Chinese (P < 0.05) and a significant correlation was seen between BMI, female gender, diabetes, and the use of metformin and hs-CRP in all three ethnicities (P < 0.05) when adjusted for the above variables and use of aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB), statin, metformin, rosiglitazone, sulfonylurea, glinides, acarbose, and insulin.
Conclusion: hs-CRP concentrations are significantly higher in Indians compared to the Chinese (in both the diabetic and nondiabetic individuals) after adjustment for the various demographic, metabolic, and therapeutic variables.
Keywords: C-reactive protein, ethnicity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF]