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High expression of Y-box-binding protein 1 correlates with poor prognosis and early recurrence in patients with small invasive lung adenocarcinoma

Authors Zhao S, Guo W, Li J, Yu W, Guo T, Deng W, Gu C

Received 5 November 2015

Accepted for publication 25 January 2016

Published 5 May 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 2683—2692


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Daniele Santini

Shilei Zhao,1,* Wei Guo,1,* Jinxiu Li,1 Wendan Yu,1 Tao Guo,1 Wuguo Deng,2,3 Chundong Gu1

1The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Cancer Stem Cell, Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 2Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 3State Key Laboratory of Targeted Drug for Tumors of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou Double Bioproduct Inc., Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Prognosis of small (≤2 cm) invasive lung adenocarcinoma remains poor, and identification of high-risk individuals from the patients after complete surgical resection of lung adenocarcinoma has become an urgent problem. YBX1 has been reported to be able to predict prognosis in many cancers (except lung adenocarcinoma) that are independent of TNM (tumor, nodes, metastases) staging, especially small invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we examined the significance of YBX1 expression on prognosis and recurrence in patients with small invasive lung adenocarcinoma.
Material and methods: A total of 75 patients with small invasive lung adenocarcinoma after complete resection were enrolled from January 2008 to December 2010. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of YBX1, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to precisely assess the overall expression of YBX1. Meanwhile, primary lesions were identified based on the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society’s classification of lung adenocarcinoma. The effect of different clinicopathological factors on patients’ survival was examined. Furthermore, Western blot analysis was used to show the expression of YBX1 in vitro.
Results: Sensitivity and specificity of YBX1 for detecting small invasive lung adenocarcinoma from normal surrounding tissue were 66.7% and 74.7% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve =0.731; P<0.001), respectively. High YBX1 expression was detected in 31 (41.3%) patients, and in A549, H322, Hcc827, and H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cells but not in HLF cells. In addition to sex, age, tumor size, TNM staging, pleural invasion, and lymph node metastasis, the expression of YBX1 was associated with the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society pathological grade risk (P=0.026) and differentiation (P=0.009). The patients with low YBX1 expression lived longer than those with high expression (5-year overall survival: 52.3% vs 79.0%; P=0.039) and showed fewer recurrences (P=0.024). In multivariate analyses, high YBX1 expression (odds ratio =2.737; 95% confidence interval: 1.058–7.082; P=0.038) was shown as an independent risk factor of overall survival but not of disease-free survival (odds ratio =1.696; 95% confidence interval: 0.616–4.673; P=0.307).
Conclusion: YBX1 is an important predictor for the prognosis in patients with small invasive lung adenocarcinoma after complete resection.

Keywords: YBX1, lung adenocarcinoma, prognosis

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