GRHL2 Upregulation Predicts a Poor Prognosis and Promotes the Resistance of Serous Ovarian Cancer to Cisplatin
Authors Nie Y, Ding Y, Yang M
Received 18 February 2020
Accepted for publication 5 June 2020
Published 30 June 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 6303—6314
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Nicola Silvestris
Yanting Nie, Yiling Ding, Mengyuan Yang
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Mengyuan Yang Email email@example.com
Background: GRHL2 has been shown to function in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, the relationship between GRHL2 and cisplatin (DDP) resistance in serous ovarian cancer (SOC) is not clear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the function and mechanism of GRHL2 in DDP resistance of SOC.
Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was utilized to identify GRHL2 protein expression in DDP resistant and sensitive SOC tissues. GRHL2 mRNA and protein levels were identified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting in SKOV3/DDP and SKOV3 cell lines. We conducted loss- and gain-of-function experiments to uncover the consequence of GRHL2 knockdown or overexpression on the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to DDP in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanism.
Results: It was observed that expression of GRHL2 was higher in DDP resistant SOC tissues relative to DDP sensitive SOC tissues. In addition, the increased expression of GRHL2 led to shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Meanwhile, the GRHL2 transcript and protein levels in SKOV3/DDP were also higher than SKOV3. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-facilitated GRHL2 gene knockdown considerably heightened the sensitivity of SKOV3/DDP cells to DDP by inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis, while up-regulation of GRHL2 significantly reduced the sensitivity of SKOV3 cells to DDP by promoting proliferation and decreasing apoptosis. In addition, GRHL2 promotes DDP resistance of SOC through activation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathways.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that GRHL2 up-regulation predicts a poor prognosis and promotes the resistance of SOC to DDP. Therefore, GRHL2 may be a possible treatment target for cisplatin-resistant serous ovarian cancer.
Keywords: serous ovarian cancer, SOC, GRHL2, cisplatin resistance, ERK/MAPK
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