Geographic variations of the prevalence and distribution of COPD phenotypes in Spain: “the ESPIRAL-ES study”
Received 28 November 2017
Accepted for publication 29 January 2018
Published 10 April 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 1115—1124
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Charles Downs
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Bernardino Alcázar-Navarrete,1 Juan Antonio Trigueros,2 Juan Antonio Riesco,3,4 Anna Campuzano,5 Joselín Pérez5
1Pulmonology Department, Hospital La Loja, Granada, 2Centro de Salud de Menasalvas, Toledo, 3Pulmonology Department, Hospital San Pedro de Alcántara, 4Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Cáceres, 5Grupo Ferrer Internacional, Barcelona, Spain
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of COPD phenotypes at a national level and to determine their geographic distribution among different autonomous communities in Spain.
Patients and methods: A total of 1,610 patients (82% men, median age 67 years) recruited in primary care centers and pneumology services participated in an observational, cross-sectional, and multicenter study. Phenotypes evaluated were the non-exacerbator phenotype, the asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), the exacerbator phenotype with emphysema, and the exacerbator phenotype with chronic bronchitis.
Results: The non-exacerbator phenotype was the most common (46.7%) followed by exacerbator with chronic bronchitis (22.4%) and exacerbator with emphysema (16.4%). The ACOS phenotype accounted for the lowest rate (14.5%). For each phenotype, the highest prevalence rates were concentrated in two or three autonomous communities, with relatively similar rates for the remaining regions. Overall prevalence rates were higher for the non-exacerbator and the exacerbator with chronic bronchitis phenotypes than for ACOS and the exacerbator with chronic bronchitis phenotypes. Differences in the distribution of COPD phenotypes according to gender, age, physician specialty, smoking habit, number of comorbidities, quality of life assessed with the COPD Assessment Test, and BODEx index (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exacerbations) were all statistically significant.
Conclusion: Differences in the prevalence rates of COPD phenotypes among the Spanish autonomous communities have been documented. Mapping the distribution of COPD phenotypes is useful to highlight regional differences as starting point for comparisons across time. This geographic analysis provides health-care planners a valuable platform to assess changes in COPD burden at nationwide and regional levels.
Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, phenotype, quality of life
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