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Genetic Characterization and Risk Stratification of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors Pourrajab F, Zare-Khormizi MR, Hashemi AS, Hekmatimoghaddam S

Received 15 December 2019

Accepted for publication 22 February 2020

Published 25 March 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 2231—2253

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S242479

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Sanjeev Srivastava


Fatemeh Pourrajab,1,2 Mohamad Reza Zare-Khormizi,3 Azam Sadat Hashemi,4 Seyedhossein Hekmatimoghaddam4,5

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 2Nutrition and Food Security Research Centre, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 3School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 4Hematology & Oncology Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 5Department of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, School of Paramedicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

Correspondence: Fatemeh Pourrajab
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd 8915173149, Iran
Email mina_poorrajab@yahoo.com

Abstract: The most common acute leukemia in adults is acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The pathophysiology of the disease associates with cytogenetic abnormalities, gene mutations and aberrant gene expressions. At the molecular level, the disease manifests as changes in both epigenetic and genetic signatures. At the clinical level, two aspects of AML should be taken into account. First, the molecular changes occurring in the disease are important prognostic and predictive markers of AML. Second, use of novel therapies targeting these molecular changes. Currently, cytogenetic abnormalities and molecular alterations are the common biomarkers for the prognosis and choice of treatment for AML. Finding a panel of multiple biomarkers is a crucial diagnostic step for patient classification and serves as a prerequisite for individualized treatment strategies. Furthermore, the most important way of identifying relevant targets for new treatment approaches is defining specific patterns or a spectrum of driver gene mutations occurring in AML. Then, an algorithm can be established by the use of several biomarkers, to be used for personalized medicine. This review deals with molecular alterations, risk stratification, and relevant therapeutic decision-making in AML.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, AML, genetic characterization, risk stratification

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