General theory of inflammation: patient self-administration of hydrocortisone safely achieves superior control of hydrocortisone-responding disorders by matching dosage with symptom intensity
Received 30 November 2018
Accepted for publication 2 April 2019
Published 13 June 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 161—166
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Ms Justinn Cochran
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Ning Quan
John B Irwin,1 AL Baldwin,2 Virgil I Stenberg3
1Private Practice, Tarrington, CT, USA; 2Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Arizona School of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA; 3University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA
†John B Irwin passed away on November 3, 2015.
Objective: To determine if patient self-administration of hydrocortisone will safely achieve superior symptom control for all hydrocortisone-responding disorders as it does for Addison’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis.
Methods: Two thousand four hundred and twenty-eight participants with hydrocortisone-responding disorders were brought to a minimum symptom state using daily administered hydrocortisone tablets in a 24-week, open study. Thereafter, participants used 5-day, low-dose hydrocortisone regimens to quench subsequent disorder exacerbations (flares) to maintain the minimum symptom state. Stressors such as emotional traumas, infections, allergies, and injuries were minimized to reduce disorder intensity, hydrocortisone consumption, and participant discomfort.
Results: Two thousand fifteen participants, 601 with fibromyalgia, 579 with osteoarthritis, 246 with rheumatoid arthritis, 226 with undifferentiated arthritis, 75 with back pain, 51 with Parkinson’s disease, 44 with polymyalgia rheumatica, 25 with neuropathy, 25 with chronic fatigue syndrome, 25 with dementia, 21 with migraine headache, 19 with multiple sclerosis, and 78 with other disorders completed the 24-week study to achieve a composite average symptom improvement of 76% with equal response rates. The participants averaged ingesting 12 mg of hydrocortisone per day. No significant adverse reactions were observed.
Conclusions: Patient self-administration of hydrocortisone safely achieves superior symptom control for 38 hydrocortisone-responding disorders at equal rates and symptom improvements to confirm and amplify an earlier double-blind study finding on rheumatoid arthritis. These results are consistent with the body having an inflammation control system and chronic inflammation being a disorder unto itself with differing symptoms sets dependent on its location.
Clinical Trials Government Identifier: NCT03558971
Keywords: general theory of inflammation, chronic inflammation, inflammation control system, pain, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia
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