Gene–Environment Interactions in Major Mental Disorders in the Czech Republic
Received 13 November 2019
Accepted for publication 3 March 2020
Published 6 May 2020 Volume 2020:16 Pages 1147—1156
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Klara Latalova,1 Omar Sery,2,3 Kristyna Hosakova,4 Ladislav Hosak4
1Department of Psychiatry, Palacky University Olomouc, School of Medicine and University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; 3Laboratory of Neurobiology and Pathological Physiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic; 4Department of Psychiatry, Charles University, School of Medicine in Hradec Kralove and University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
Correspondence: Ladislav Hosak Tel +420 495 832 360
Fax +42 495 83 3 041
Background: Mental disorders affect about one-third of the human population, are typically chronic and significantly decrease the quality of life. Presently, the treatment of mental illnesses is far from adequate with a substantial proportion of the patients being pharmacoresistant and suffering from relapses. One of the reasons for this complicated situation is that we do not precisely know about the causes of mental disorders, so their treatment cannot be causal. The etiology of a mental disorder is typically based on a combination of molecular (genetic) and environmental factors.
Aim: The aim of the project is to discover the gene–environment interactions (GxE) in a wide spectrum of mental disorders.
Methods: The design of our study is innovative in the sense that we intend to study large groups of associated mental disorders as a whole instead of in isolation. This would enable us to map out the possible environmental causal factors in detail in relation to their character, magnitude and timing. The project also allows a study of genetics (including epigenetics and microbiomes) as well as the environment simultaneously. We plan on involving three study groups: the first group are patients suffering from schizophrenia or a mood disorder such as major depression, recurrent depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder; the second group of patients have anxiety disorders; and the third group are healthy volunteers from the general population who are genetically unrelated. All of the study subjects will undergo the following assessments: a psychiatric examination, the identification of stressful life events with the aid of a questionnaire, the examination of their reaction to stress, genetic and epigenetic (microRNA) assessments and the analysis of oral and gut microbiome.
Conclusion: We expect that some of the genetic as well as environmental factors in the studied mental disorders are shared, while some others are specific. We also expect that the GxE (gene–environment interaction) in schizophrenic and affective disorders will be different from the GxE in anxiety disorders and that the GxE in the studied mental disorders will differ generally from the GxE in healthy volunteers. Our results can help in the prevention and individualized treatment of a range of mental disorders.
Keywords: schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, gene, environment, GxE interactions
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