Gender Differences in the Associations Between Health Literacy and Medication Adherence in Hypertension: A Population-Based Survey in Heris County, Iran
Received 8 January 2020
Accepted for publication 19 March 2020
Published 23 April 2020 Volume 2020:16 Pages 157—166
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Konstantinos Tziomalos
Haleh Heizomi,1 Zeynab Iraji,2 Rogayeh Vaezi,1 Devender Bhalla,3– 5 Donald E Morisky,6 Haidar Nadrian1,7
1Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Pôle Universitaire Euclide, Intergovernmental UN Treaty 49006/49007®, Bangui, Central African Republic; 4Iranian Epilepsy Association®, Tehran, Iran; 5Nepal Interest Group of Epilepsy and Neurology (NiGEN), Kathmandu, Nepal; 6Department of Community Health Sciences, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 7Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Correspondence: Haidar Nadrian
Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faulty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Attar-e-Neyshabouri Street, Tabriz, Iran
Objective: We examined the gender-based associations of health literacy (HL) with self-reported medication adherence (MEDA) among patients with primary hypertension (pHTN).
Patients and Methods: The subjects were recruited from the general population through all health centers of the Heris county, east Azarbaijan. They were to be adults (30+ years age), with pHTN of any stage, of any gender, and without comorbid illness. All underwent detailed face-to-face interview. We used valid questionnaires for HL and MEDA. Hierarchical regression was done to establish the association between MEDA, socio-demographic variables, and nine HL domains by gender. Other statistical procedures were also done.
Results: A total of 300 (48.6% males, mean age: 56.7± 9.3) subjects participated; 43.0% were uneducated, 73.0% had moderate socioeconomic status, 68.0% had poor HL, and 7.0% maintained high adherence. Men were better in reading skills (p=0.002), and accessing (p=0.01) and using (p=0.02) health information, but women were better in health knowledge (p=0.004). The average regression estimate (±standard deviation) between HL and MEDA was 0.37± 0.09, lower among men (0.361± 0.11) than women (0.396± 0.08), p=0.003. Upon hierarchical regression, the association between HL and MEDA was significant for communication and decision-making skills alone among both men (34.5%) and women (40.6%), individually.
Conclusion: HL had substantial association with MEDA among those with HTN, for both men and women, particularly the communication and decision-making. With considerations on gender differences, this association should be confirmed through interventional studies to help make HL a formal mitigating strategy for MEDA and other public health goals.
Keywords: medication adherence, health literacy, hypertension, gender
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]