Fruit and Vegetable Consumption is Protective from Short Sleep and Poor Sleep Quality Among University Students from 28 Countries
Received 21 May 2020
Accepted for publication 6 July 2020
Published 26 August 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 627—633
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Sutapa Mukherjee
Supa Pengpid,1,2 Karl Peltzer3
1ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand; 2Department of Research Administration and Development, University of Limpopo, Turfloop, Mankweng, South Africa; 3Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Correspondence: Karl Peltzer
University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and sleep duration and sleep quality in university students.
Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, 21,027 university students with a median age of 20 years from 28 countries replied to self-reported measures of FV consumption and sleep duration and quality.
Results: The prevalence of short and long sleep was 38.9% and 12.8%, respectively, and the prevalence of poor sleep quality was 9.6% and restless sleep 19.7%. There was a linear decrease in the prevalence of short sleep with increasing FV consumption beyond ≥ 2 FV servings/day (vs 0– 1 FV servings/day). Consuming 2 FV servings/day (vs 0– 1 FV servings/day) was associated with a 21% decreased (ARRR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.70– 0.80) and 7 or more FV servings/day with a 33% decreased odds (ARRR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.55– 0.81) for short sleep. Consuming 5 FV servings/day (vs 0– 1 FV servings/day) was associated with a 34% decreased (ARRR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.51– 0.84) and 7 or more FV servings/day with a 34% decreased odds (ARRR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.50– 0.88) for long sleep. In the final adjusted logistic regression model, consuming 3 FV servings/day (vs 0– 1 FV servings/day) was associated with a 49% decreased (AOR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.42– 0.0.62) and 7 or more FV servings/day with a 30% decreased odds (AOR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53– 0.93) for poor sleep quality. Consuming 5 FV servings/day (vs 0– 1 FV servings/day) was associated with a 34% decreased odds (AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54– 0.81) for restless sleep.
Conclusion: The study extended previous findings of an association between inadequate FV consumption and short sleep and an inverse association between FV consumption and poor sleep quality and restless sleep.
Keywords: fruit and vegetable consumption, sleep duration, sleep quality, university students
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