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From bladder to systemic syndrome: concept and treatment evolution of interstitial cystitis

Authors Dinis S, Tavares de Oliveira J, Pinto R, Cruz F, Buffington CA, Dinis P

Received 23 December 2014

Accepted for publication 21 April 2015

Published 23 July 2015 Volume 2015:7 Pages 735—744

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S60798

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 5

Editor who approved publication: Professor Elie Al-Chaer


Sara Dinis,1,2 Joana Tavares de Oliveira,3,4 Rui Pinto,1,5 Francisco Cruz,1,5 CA Tony Buffington,6 Paulo Dinis1,5

1Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital de São João, Porto, 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ULHT, Lisbon, 4Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology (IPATIMUP), University of Porto, 5Department of Urology, Hospital de São João, Porto, Portugal; 6Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, OH, USA

Abstract: Interstitial cystitis, presently known as bladder pain syndrome, has been recognized for over a century but is still far from being understood. Its etiology is unknown and the syndrome probably harbors different diseases. Autoimmune dysfunction, urothelial leakage, infection, central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction, genetic disease, childhood trauma/abuse, and subsequent stress response system dysregulation might be implicated. Management is slowly evolving from a solo act by the end-organ specialist to a team approach based on new typing and phenotyping of the disease. However, oral and invasive treatments are still largely aimed at the bladder and are based on currently proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. Future research will better define the disease, permitting individualization of treatment.

Keywords: bladder pain syndrome, concept, treatment

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