Frequent nightmares in Chinese patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy: prevalence, correlates, and their association with functional impairment
Authors Zhong BL, Xu YM, Xie WX, Lu J
Received 24 January 2019
Accepted for publication 2 July 2019
Published 18 July 2019 Volume 2019:15 Pages 2063—2072
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Justinn Cochran
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Jun Chen
Bao-Liang Zhong,1,2 Yan-Min Xu,2 Wu-Xiang Xie,3 Jin Lu4
1Research Center for Psychological and Health Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Affiliated Wuhan Mental Health Center, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Peking University Clinical Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, People’s Republic of China
Purpose: Nightmares are associated with many negative health outcomes; however, little is known about the characteristics of nightmares in heroin-dependent patients (HDPs). This study examined the prevalence and correlates of frequent nightmares (FNs) and their association with functional impairment in Chinese patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).
Patients and methods: In total, 603 Chinese HDPs from three MMT clinics in Wuhan, China, completed this survey. FNs were defined as reporting nightmares at least once a week. The Sheehan Disability Scale (ShDS) was used to assess the severity of functional impairment of patients. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographics, drug use characteristics, physical health, mental health, and insomnia.
Results: The prevalence of FNs in Chinese HDPs receiving MMT was 25.9%. Factors significantly associated with nightmares among MMT HDPs included an educational attainment of senior high school and above (OR=2.73, P<0.001), unemployment (OR=3.16, P<0.001), a history of re-education through forced labor (OR=3.14, P<0.001), injecting heroin before MMT (OR=3.62, P=0.002), a high dose of methadone (>70 mg/day) (OR=2.03, P=0.006), use of hypnotics (OR=1.91, P=0.044), the presence of hepatitis B virus core antibody (OR=4.63, P<0.001), pain (OR=3.20, P<0.001), anxiety (OR=2.06, P=0.039), and insomnia (OR=5.75, P<0.001). After controlling for potential confounders, nightmares were still significantly associated with a higher ShDS score (β=2.718, P=0.006).
Conclusion: FNs are prevalent among Chinese HDPs receiving MMT and significantly associated with functional impairment. Nightmares are a clinically relevant phenomenon in Chinese MMT clinics, which deserves more clinical and research attention.
Keywords: nightmare, methadone maintenance therapy, functional impairment, sleep disorder
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