Frequency of inborn errors of metabolism screening for children with unexplained acute encephalopathy at an emergency department
Received 18 February 2018
Accepted for publication 23 March 2018
Published 29 June 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 1715—1720
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Mamdouh Abdel Maksoud,1 Solaf Mohamed ELsayed,2 Rania H Shatla,1 Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam,3 Riad M Elsayed,4 Amira AA Mosabah,5 Ashraf M Sherif5
1Pediatric Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Genetics Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pediatrics, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine-Girls, Cairo, Egypt; 4Pediatric Neurology Unit, Pediatric Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Dakahlia, Egypt; 5Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Objective: Our study aimed to estimate the frequency of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) in patients presenting with acute encephalopathy-like picture at an emergency department (ED).
Subjects and methods: Our study was a prospective observational study conducted on 30 patients admitted to the pediatric ED with unexplained acute encephalopathy. The study included 30 children with an age ranging from 1 month to 5 years. All patients were subjected to full history taking, thorough clinical examination, and laboratory investigations including serum ammonia, serum lactate, arterial blood gases, tandem mass spectroscopy, organic acid of urine, cerebrospinal fluid examination to exclude central nervous system infection plus the routine laboratory tests (kidney functions, liver functions, random blood glucose, complete blood picture), and brain imaging computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging brain.
Results: Thirty children presented with acute encephalopathy at the ED. All were screened for suspected IEMs. Ten (33.3%) of them was positive in the initial screening test. There were four (13.3%) patients with possible mitochondrial diseases, four (13.3%) patients with possible organic acidemia, one (3.3%) patient with possible urea cycle defect, and one (3.3%) patient with possible nonketotic hyperglycinemia.
Conclusion: Any case of unexplained acute encephalopathy presenting to the ED should be investigated for suspected IEM, especially in high-risk families, as early interventions will lead to improved outcome.
Keywords: inborn errors of metabolism, children, acute encephalopathy, emergency department, comatose child, metabolic screen
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