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Factors Associated with Oral Candidiasis in People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Case Control Study

Authors Suryana K, Suharsono H, Antara IGPJ

Received 28 October 2019

Accepted for publication 20 December 2019

Published 14 January 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 33—39

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S236304

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Bassel Sawaya


Ketut Suryana, 1 Hamong Suharsono, 2 I Gede Putu Jarwa Antara 1

1Department of Internal Medicine, Wangaya Hospital of Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia; 2Department of Biochemistry, Veterinary Faculty of Udayana, University of Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

Corespondence: Ketut Suryana Akasia Street, Lane.VIII No. 22 Denpasar, Bali 80235, Indonesia
Tel +62 859 537 839 44
Email ketutsuryana@gmail.com

Background: Oral candidiasis (OC) is the most frequent opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by Candida species overgrowth. A wide variety of risk factor that contributes to yeast infection especially candidiasis. It might be acting as an early marker for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). There are some risk factors for PLWHA associated OC at Wangaya hospital in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.
Aim: To identify risk factors of OC in PLWHA at Wangaya Hospital in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.
Settings and Design: Case control study was conducted from March 1, 2016 and July 30, 2019, included 448 participants (207 cases and 241 controls). Consecutive recruitment was employed.
Methods: Cases were PLWHA (18 to 60 years old) with OC and controls without OC. Diagnosis of OC based on the clinical features which are the pseudomembranous candidiasis; oral thrush. An interviewer administered a structured questionnaire used to collect information on risk factors. Statistical analysis used: bivariate analysis was performed on all variables. Chi-square test with statistically significant was at a level of 0.05.
Results: The participants included 207 (46.20%) PLWHA with OC and 241 (53.80%) PLWHA who did not have OC. The majority participants, 293 (65.40%) were male. OC was associated with age [p = 0.03; OR = 0.66 (95% CI:0.45– 0.95)]; sex [p = 0.002; OR = 1.88 (95% CI:1.26– 2.80)]; Xerostomia [p = 0.000; OR = 4.15 (95% CI:2.76– 6.23)]; smoking [p = 0.000; OR = 6.83 (95% CI: 4.46– 10.44)]; alcohol consumption [p = 0.000; OR = 5.76 (95% CI: 3.74– 8.83)]; antibiotic usage [p = 0.000; OR = 4.49 (95% CI: 2.93– 6.90)]; CD4 count [p = 0.000; OR = 3.29 (95% CI:2.24– 4.86)]; HIV clinical stage [p = 0.000; OR = 3.58 (95% CI 2.39– 5.37)]. No significant association between prothesis with OC.
Conclusion: We found that age, sex, xerostomia, smoking, alcohol consumption, antibiotic usage, CD4 counts and advanced HIV Clinical stage (AIDS) were significant associated risk factors for OC in PLWHA.

Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, oral candidiasis, associated risk factors


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