Factors Associated with Non-Remission in Bipolar Disorder: The Multicenter Treatment Survey for Bipolar Disorder in Psychiatric Outpatient Clinics (MUSUBI)
Received 16 January 2020
Accepted for publication 19 March 2020
Published 31 March 2020 Volume 2020:16 Pages 881—890
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Taro Kishi
Takashi Tsuboi,1,2 Takefumi Suzuki,2,3 Takaharu Azekawa,4 Naoto Adachi,4 Hitoshi Ueda,4 Kouji Edagawa,4 Eiichi Katsumoto,4 Yukihisa Kubota,4 Eiichiro Goto,4 Seiji Hongo,4 Yoichiro Watanabe,4 Masaki Kato,2,5 Norio Yasui-Furukori,2,6 Reiji Yoshimura,2,7 Atsuo Nakagawa,2,8 Toshiaki Kikuchi,2,8 Koichiro Watanabe1,2
1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2The Japanese Society of Clinical Neuropsychopharmacology, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Yamanashi Faculty of Medicine, Yamanashi, Japan; 4The Japanese Association of Neuro-Psychiatric Clinics, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan; 6Department of Psychiatry, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 7Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka, Japan; 8Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Correspondence: Takashi Tsuboi
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2, Shinkawa, Mitaka-Shi, Tokyo 181-8611, Japan
Tel +81 422 47 5511
Fax +81 422 45 4697
Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with non-remission in bipolar disorder.
Patients and Methods: The multicenter treatment survey for bipolar disorder in psychiatric outpatient clinics (MUSUBI) study used a questionnaire administered at 176 clinics throughout Japan from September to October 2016. Clinic psychiatrists performed a retrospective medical record survey of consecutive cases with bipolar disorder. Patients were considered to be in remission if they met all of the following criteria: they were not in a mixed state, their manic or depressive symptoms were either borderline or nonexistent (corresponding to 2 or 1 points on the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, Bipolar Version), and their psychiatrists clinically considered them to be in remission. Enrolled patients were classified into remitters group and non-remitters group and demographic and clinical characteristics were contrasted between the groups. Non-remitters were compared with remitters, using a series of logistic regression analyses.
Results: A total of 3130 patients (1420 men; mean age: 50.3 years) were included in this study; 1307 patients (41.8%) were in remission. Of the remaining 1823 patients, 1260 (40.3%) had mild to severe depression, 261 (8.3%) suffered from manic or hypomanic episodes, and 302 (9.6%) were in a mixed state. Logistic regression analyses found the following eight factors to be significantly correlated with non-remission in patients with bipolar disorder: female gender, younger age, unemployed status, rapid cycling pattern, comorbid alcohol/substance abuse, poorer social function, lithium non-use, and antidepressant use.
Conclusion: The MUSUBI study, the largest nationwide investigation on bipolar disorder, identified eight clinically relevant factors associated with non-remission in bipolar patients. They have important clinical implications; further prospective studies are necessary to replicate these findings and to guide better managements for those in serious needs.
Keywords: bipolar disorder, non-remission, nationwide study, mood stabilizer, antipsychotics
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