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Facile fabrication of hypericin-entrapped glyconanoparticles for targeted photodynamic therapy

Authors Shao C, Shang K, Xu H, Zhang Y, Pei Z, Pei Y

Received 1 January 2018

Accepted for publication 5 June 2018

Published 23 July 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 4319—4331

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S161262

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Yu Mi

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang


Chen Shao, Kun Shang, Huaibao Xu, Yu Zhang, Zhichao Pei, Yuxin Pei

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products & Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China

Background: Photodynamic therapy is a safe, noninvasive modality for cancer therapy, in which the photosensitizer (PS) is a crucial component. Hypericin (Hy) is a promising PS; however, its clinical application is significantly limited by its poor hydrophilicity.
Materials and methods: To overcome the clinical application limitation of Hy, a novel strategy is developed here by entrapping Hy into polydopamine (PDA) film formed on the surface of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) through the self-polymerization of dopamine under alkaline condition. The amount of Hy in the Hy-entrapped PDA–MNP composite nanoparticles (denoted as PHMs) was measured by spectrophotometry. Furthermore, lactose, as the targeting ligand to asialoglycoprotein receptors, was conjugated to the surface of the PHMs by taking advantage of the spontaneous reaction of PDA with amino groups.
Results: Spectrophotometry analysis revealed that the amount of Hy in the PHMs was 72 µmol g-1 PHMs. The fabricated Hy-entrapped glyconanoparticle (Lac-PHM) exhibited excellent water dispersibility, stability, and selectivity for asialoglycoprotein receptors overexpressing HepG2 cells. Atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis showed that the amount of the Lac-PHMs taken in HepG2 cells was 2.1-fold higher than that of the triethylene glycol-modified PHMs. The results of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation detection, cytotoxicity study, and apoptosis detection indicated that the Lac-PHMs had a satisfying photodynamic effect to HepG2 cells.
Conclusion: The strategy developed in this work offers great potential for delivery of a variety of hydrophobic PSs.

Keywords:
hypericin, photodynamic therapy, glyconanoparticles, targeted drug delivery

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