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Extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infection in hematological disease

Authors Zhou L, Feng S, Sun G, Tang B, Zhu X, Song K, Zhang X, Lu H, Liu H, Sun Z, Zheng C

Received 19 October 2018

Accepted for publication 18 January 2019

Published 26 February 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 481—491


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Li Zhou,1,* Shanglong Feng,1,2,* Guangyu Sun,1 Baolin Tang,1 Xiaoyu Zhu,1 Kaidi Song,1 Xuhan Zhang,1 Huaiwei Lu,3 Huilan Liu,1 Zimin Sun,1 Changcheng Zheng1,2

1Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China; 2Department of Hematology, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial (XDR-GNB) bloodstream infection (BSI) is difficult to treat and is associated with a high mortality rate in patients with hematological diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the predisposing risk factors and the efficacy of the antibiotic treatment in these patients, including exploration of efficacy and adverse effects of high-dose tigecycline.
Methods: Between January 2013 and December 2017, 27 XDR-GNB BSI patients with hematological diseases were diagnosed and retrospectively reviewed in the current study.
Results: Clinical response in patients with severe complications (such as severe neutropenia >10 days, grade III–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), and concurrent pneumonia) was significantly lower than in patients without or with only mild complications (P=0.033). The efficacy rate was 62.5% (10/16) in patients with tigecycline-based combination therapy regimen, 77.8% (7/9) with a high-dose tigecycline regimen, and 42.9% (3/7) with a standard-dose tigecycline regimen (P=0.36). The 30-day survival rates of patients undergoing high-dose or standard-dose tigecycline treatment were 66.7% (95% CI: 28.2–87.8) and 57.1% (95% CI: 17.2–83.7), respectively, (P=0.603). Patients with mild complications were associated with superior 30-day survival rates than patients with severe complications (93.8% vs 36.4%, P=0.001), >10 days of neutropenia (90.9% vs 33.3%, P=0.012), severe aGVHD (100% vs 40%, P=0.049), and concurrent pneumonia (84.6% vs 57.1%, P=0.048).
Conclusion: Our study indicated that XDR-GNB BSI in patients of hematological diseases with severe complications, such as long duration of neutropenia (>10 days) and severe aGVHD were associated with poor clinical response and short survival. We first indicated that these patients undergoing high-dose tigecycline treatment had an improved clinical response and an increased 30-day survival rate compared with the standard-dose group, although the differences were not statistically significant. This might be due to more severe complicated patients enrolled in high-dose group and the limited number size in our study.

Keywords: carbapenem resistant bacterial infection, bloodstream infection, high-dose tigecycline, hematological malignancies

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