Exposure to Maternal Immune Activation Causes Congenital Unfolded Protein Response Defects and Increases the Susceptibility to Postnatal Inflammatory Stimulation in Offspring
Received 1 December 2020
Accepted for publication 22 January 2021
Published 12 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 355—365
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Ning Quan
Yo Shimizu,1 Tsuyoshi Tsukada,2 Hiromi Sakata-Haga,2 Daisuke Sakai,3 Hiroki Shoji,3 Yutaka Saikawa,1 Toshihisa Hatta2
1Department of Pediatrics, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan; 2Department of Anatomy, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan; 3Department of Biology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan
Correspondence: Toshihisa Hatta
Department of Anatomy, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan
Background: A number of childhood diseases have been identified, such as severe infection or autoinflammatory disease, in which immune overreaction against inflammation is a possible underlying mechanism. Previous reports have demonstrated that fetal cells exposed to maternal immune activation (MIA) induced by polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] exhibited hypersensitivity to inflammation in vitro. However, the details of this mechanism remain unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to reveal the reaction to inflammation in offspring exposed to MIA in the prenatal period, as well as its molecular mechanism, using a viral infection mouse model.
Materials and Methods: Pregnant mice at 12.5, 14.5, and 16.5 days post coitum were injected intraperitoneally with poly(I:C) 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) or saline. Offspring aged 3– 4 weeks received the second injection of 20 mg/kg BW or 4 mg/kg BW poly(I:C) or saline. Serum and tissues were collected at 2, 24, 48, and 72 h after the postnatal injection. The cytokine profile, histopathology of organs, and unfolded protein response (UPR) in offspring were examined.
Results: The serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and interferon-γ were significantly higher in the MIA group, and acute liver necrosis was detected. Moreover, failure in UPR was observed in the MIA group compared with that in the control group.
Conclusion: Overall, MIA exposure in utero caused failure in UPR as well as immune overreaction to the second attack of inflammation in offspring. Our results suggested that prenatal exposure to MIA might contribute to the congenital inflammatory constitution after birth.
Keywords: maternal immune activation, liver necrosis, immune overreaction, unfolded protein response defects
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]