Examining Configural, Metric, and Scalar Invariance of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale in Native American and Non-Hispanic White Adults in the Oklahoma Study of Native American Pain Risk (OK-SNAP)
Received 13 December 2019
Accepted for publication 7 March 2020
Published 6 May 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 961—969
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr E Alfonso Romero-Sandoval
Jamie L Rhudy,1 Randolph C Arnau,2 Felicitas A Huber,1 Edward W Lannon,1 Bethany L Kuhn,1 Shreela Palit,1 Michael F Payne,1,3 Cassandra A Sturycz,1 Natalie Hellman,1 Yvette M Guereca,1 Tyler A Toledo,1 Joanna O Shadlow1
1The University of Tulsa, Department of Psychology, Tulsa, OK, USA; 2University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Psychology, Hattiesburg, MS, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Correspondence: Jamie L Rhudy
The University of Tulsa, Department of Psychology, Tulsa, OK, USA
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Introduction: Native Americans (NAs) have a higher prevalence of chronic pain than other US racial/ethnic groups, but the mechanisms contributing to this pain disparity are under-researched. Pain catastrophizing is one of the most important psychosocial predictors of negative pain outcomes, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) has been established as a reliable and valid measure of the pain catastrophizing construct. However, before the PCS can be used to study pain risk in NAs, it is prudent to first determine whether the established 3-factor structure of the PCS also holds true for NAs.
Methods: The current study examined the measurement (configural, metric, and scalar) invariance of the PCS in a healthy, pain-free sample of 138 NA and 144 non-Hispanic white (NHW) participants.
Results: Results suggest that the previously established 3-factor solution fits for both groups (configural invariance) and that the factor loadings were equivalent across groups (metric invariance). Scalar invariance was also established, except for 1 minor scalar difference in a single threshold for item 3 (suggesting NHWs were more likely to respond with a 4 on that item than NAs).
Discussion: Results provide additional evidence for the psychometric properties of the PCS and suggest it can be used to study pain catastrophizing in healthy, pain-free NA samples.
Keywords: confirmatory factor analysis, pain catastrophizing, Native Americans, pain, ethnic differences, pain coping
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