Ex vivo corneal epithelial wound healing following exposure to ophthalmic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Keping Xu1, Mark McDermott1, Linda Villanueva2, Rhett M Schiffman2, David A Hollander2
1The Kresge Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA
Purpose: Ketorolac 0.45% is a new formulation of topical ketorolac in which preservative (benzalkonium chloride, BAK) was removed and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was added to improve tolerability and reduce dosing frequency. This study compared the effects of ketorolac 0.45% on corneal wound healing to prior ketorolac formulations (0.4% and 0.5%), bromfenac 0.09%, and nepafenac 0.1%.
Methods: Two parallel-group comparisons were performed in series. A 5-mm central epithelial wound was made in fresh porcine corneas. After 24 hours in minimum essential medium (MEM), corneas were incubated for 10 minutes with study drugs, Triton X-100 1% (positive control), or MEM (negative control), followed by 24 hours in MEM. The remaining wound area was stained, photographed, and quantified (pixels). Study 1 compared ketorolac 0.45% to ketorolac 0.4% and ketorolac 0.5%. Study 2 compared ketorolac 0.45% to bromfenac 0.09% and nepafenac 0.1%.
Results: The mean (±SD) original wound area was 200,506 ± 4,363 pixels, which was reduced to 59,509 ± 4850 at 48 hours after exposure to Triton X-100 1%. In study 1, the mean remaining wound areas at 48 hours in pixels were 2969 ± 1633 with MEM, 586 ± 299 with ketorolac 0.45% (significantly reduced, P < 0.05 vs all other treatments), 10,228 ± 7541 with ketorolac 0.4%, and 50,674 ± 33,409 with ketorolac 0.5% (significantly enlarged, P < 0.05 vs MEM). In study 2, the mean remaining wound areas at 48 hours were 565 ± 1263 with MEM, 322 ± 229 with ketorolac 0.45% (significantly reduced, P < 0.01 vs bromfenac 0.09% and nepafenac 0.1%), 29,093 ± 14,295 with bromfenac 0.09% (significantly enlarged, P < 0.01 vs MEM) and 47,322 ± 13,736 with nepafenac 0.1% (significantly enlarged, P < 0.01 vs MEM and vs bromfenac 0.09%).
Conclusion: Corneas treated with ketorolac 0.45% healed as rapidly as those treated with MEM, likely secondary to addition of CMC and removal of BAK. In the ex vivo corneal organ culture model, ketorolac 0.45% had statistically less impact on corneal re-epithelialization than prior ketorolac formulations (0.4% and 0.5%), bromfenac 0.09%, and nepafenac 0.01%.
Keywords: bromfenac 0.09%, corneal epithelial wound healing, epithelial toxicity, ketorolac 0.45%, nepafenac 0.1%, ocular surgery
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