Evaluation of the Efficacy of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers Sold in Southwest Ethiopia
Received 11 December 2020
Accepted for publication 28 January 2021
Published 12 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 547—554
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Sahil Khanna
Gizachew Manaye,1 Desalegn Muleta,1 Andualem Henok,2 Abyot Asres,2 Yitagesu Mamo,3 Desalegn Feyissa,3 Fikadu Ejeta,3 Wondwossen Niguse4
1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia; 2Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia; 3Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia; 4Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Gizachew Manaye
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, P.O. Box: 206, MizanTefri, Ethiopia
Background: Regarding the protection of community and health professionals suffering from a COVID-19 outbreak, currently different alcohol-based hand sanitizers have been distributed. Even though for effective protection effective alcohol-based hand sanitizers are mandatory. Their efficacy was not evaluated. This is the reason why this research was designed to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of hand sanitizers that have been sold in southern parts of Ethiopia.
Methods: Six test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella boydii) were selected from different clinical specimens. Then seven locally made products of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (MTU, Folium Fine, Epharm, Harego, Taflen and Sheba) were purchased and the disc diffusion, minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration test were done against selected test organisms. Quality control measures throughout the whole process of the laboratory work were implemented and descriptive parameters were analyzed.
Results: The zones of inhibition of the hand sanitizers at their claim concentration were ranged from noninhibition zone (Folium) to 27mm (Sheba). The minimum inhibitory concentration against all selected test organisms was observed at 45%, 55%, 65% and Taflen on undiluted form. The growth of test organisms was decreased across increasing the concentration gradient of different hand sanitizers. MTU except against E. coli, Fine, Hargo, Ephra and Sheba hand sanitizers were showed growth below 60% concentrations for all test micro-organisms. But a Folium product against all selected test micro-organisms and MTU product against E. coli were not bactericidal.
Conclusion: Fine, Hargo, Ephra, Sheba and Taflen sanitizers were the products that were effective in inhibiting the growth of all the selected test organisms, and they were having effective bactericidal activity in vitro at their claim concentration. But MTU product against E. coli and Folium product against all test microorganisms were not having an effective bactericidal activity. So, regulatory authorities and manufacturers should implement strict quality control measures and regular observations throughout the production to ensure the efficacy of hand sanitizers.
Keywords: alcohol-based hand sanitizers, hand sanitizers, sanitizers, COVID-19
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