Evaluation of postoperative analgesia in pediatric patients after hip surgery: lumbar plexus versus caudal epidural analgesia
Received 24 October 2018
Accepted for publication 18 February 2019
Published 18 March 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 997—1001
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr E Alfonso Romero-Sandoval
Mauricio Arce Villalobos,1 Giorgio Veneziano,1,2 Rebecca Miller,1 Ralph J Beltran,1,2 Senthil Krishna,1,2 Dmitry Tumin,1,3 Kevin Klingele,1,2 Joseph D Tobias1–3
1Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA
Background:There continues to be focus on the value of regional and neuraxial anesthetic techniques when combined with general anesthesia to improve postoperative analgesia. The reported advantages include decreased postoperative opioid requirements, decreased medication-related adverse effects, decreased hospital length of stay, and increased patient satisfaction. Orthopedic procedures of the hip may be amenable to such techniques as there is significant postoperative pain with the requirement for hospital admission and the administration of parenteral opioids. Given the surgical site, various regional anesthetic techniques may be used to provide analgesia including caudal epidural anesthesia (CEA) or lumbar plexus blockade (LPB).
Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of LPB versus CEA as an analgesic thechnique for patients undergoing elective hip surgery from the opioid consumption and pain scores perspective.
Patients and methods: The current study retrospectively reviews our experience with CEA and LPB for postoperative analgesia after hip surgery in the pediatric population. Regional anesthesia technique was reviewed as well as opioid requirements and pain scores.
Results: The study cohort included 61 patients, 29 who received an LPB and 32 who received CEA. No difference was noted in the demographics between the two groups. Intraoperative opioid use was 0.7 (IQR: 0.5, 1.1) mg/kg of oral morphine equivalents (MEs) in the LPB group compared to 0.6 (IQR: 0.5, 0.9) in the CEA group (p=0.479). Postoperative opioid use over the first 48 hrs was 4 (IQR: 1, 6) mg/kg of oral ME in the LPB group, compared to 2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1, 3) in the CEA group (p=0.103). Over the first 24 hrs after surgery, the median pain score in the LPB group was 5 (IQR: 1–6), compared to 3 (IQR: 0, 5) in the CEA group (p=0.014).
Conclusion: These retrospective data suggest a modest postoperative benefit of CEA when compared to LPB following hip surgery in the pediatric population. Postoperative pain scores were lower in patients receiving CEA; however, no difference in the intraoperative or postoperative opioid requirements was noted between the two groups.
Keywords: lumbar plexus block, caudal epidural anesthesia
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