Eugenol, a potential schistosomicidal agent with anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects against Schistosoma mansoni, induced liver pathology
Received 30 November 2018
Accepted for publication 21 January 2019
Published 28 March 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 709—719
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Asmaa M El-kady,1 Alzahraa Abdelraouf Ahmad,2 Tasneem M Hassan,2 Heba EM El-Deek,3 Samer S Fouad,4 Sultan S Althagfan5
1Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt; 2Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt; 3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt; 4Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt; 5Department of Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia
Introduction: Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections in developing countries. Although chemotherapy is one of the main strategies in controlling the disease, it is less effective in reversal of schistosome-induced pathology especially in the chronic and advanced stages of schistosomiasis. New strategies and prospective therapeutic agents with antifibrotic effects are needed. Eugenol has a wide anti-inflammatory effect. In the present study, we investigated the possible antischistosomal effect of eugenol on Schistosoma mansoni.
Materials and methods: The murine model of S. mansoni was established in three groups of adult male Balb-c mice; group I (infected non-treated group) and groups II and III (infected groups) treated orally with eugenol and praziquantel (PZQ), respectively. The expression of the sensitive immunohistochemical marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in schistosome-infected tissues was determined. In addition, parasitological, biochemical, and histological parameters that reflect disease severity and morbidity were examined.
Results: Eugenol treatment showed significant reduction in total worm burden by 19.2%; however, the oogram pattern showed no marked difference compared to that of the PZQ group. Yet, eugenol significantly reduced the serum levels of hepatic enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Histopathological examination revealed a significant reduction in both numbers and diameters of hepatic granulomata, which was consistent with reduction in collagen fiber deposition. Additionally, the antifibrotic effect of eugenol was validated by its considerable reduction in the expression of the sensitive marker α-SMA in both eugenol- and PZQ-treated groups.
Conclusion: Although eugenol could not totally eradicate adults of S. mansoni, the significant amelioration of liver enzymes and hepatic fibrosis potentiate eugenol’s role as a promising antifibrotic and a complementary antischistosomal agent.
Keywords: eugenol, Schistosoma mansoni, praziquantel, liver enzymes, hepatic stellate cells, anti-inflammatory
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