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Emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis: computed tomography features and clinical implications

Authors Jin J, Li S, Yu W, Liu XF, Sun Y

Received 24 September 2017

Accepted for publication 7 December 2017

Published 24 January 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 375—384

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S152447

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Charles Downs

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Chunxue Bai


Jianmin Jin,1 Shuling Li,2 Wenling Yu,2 Xiaofang Liu,1 Yongchang Sun1,3

1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China

Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis) of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.
Methods: The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.
Results: A total of 231 COPD patients (82.2% ex- or current smokers, 67.5% male) were consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous PTB (45.0%) had more severe (p=0.045) and longer history (p=0.008) of dyspnea, more exacerbations in the previous year (p=0.011), and more positive culture of P. aeruginosa (p=0.001), compared with those without PTB. Patients with previous PTB showed a higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (p<0.001), which was more significant in lungs with tuberculosis (TB) lesions, and a higher percentage of more severe bronchiectasis (Bhalla score ≥2, p=0.031), compared with those without previous PTB. The overall prevalence of emphysema was not different between patients with and without previous PTB, but in those with previous PTB, a higher number of subjects with middle (p=0.001) and lower (p=0.019) lobe emphysema, higher severity score (p=0.028), higher prevalence of panlobular emphysema (p=0.013), and more extensive centrilobular emphysema (p=0.039) were observed. Notably, in patients with TB lesions localized in a single lung, no difference was found in the occurrence and severity of emphysema between the 2 lungs.
Conclusion: COPD patients with previous PTB had unique features of bronchiectasis and emphysema on HRCT, which were associated with significant dyspnea and higher frequency of severe exacerbations. While PTB may have a local effect on bronchiectasis, its involvement in airspace damage in COPD may be extensive, probably through interactions with cigarette smoke.

Keywords:
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, emphysema
 

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