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Efficacy and mechanism of tanshinone IIA liquid nanoparticles in preventing experimental postoperative peritoneal adhesions in vivo and in vitro

Authors Qin F, Ma Y, Li X, Wang X, Wei Y, Hou C, Lin S, Hou L, Wang C

Received 27 January 2015

Accepted for publication 29 March 2015

Published 21 May 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 3699—3717

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S81650

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang

Fei Qin,1,* Yun Ma,1,* Xiao Li,2 Xian Wang,1 Yuanyi Wei,1 Chuqi Hou,3 Si Lin,1 Lianbing Hou,1 Chengxi Wang4

1Department of Pharmacy, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Pharmacy, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, 3Department of Pharmacology, Southern Medical University, 4Department of Pharmacology, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Up to 90% of patients develop adhesion following laparotomy. Upregulating fibrinolysis within the peritoneum reduces adhesions. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) promotes fibrinolysis in hepatic fibrosis and the cardiovascular system and may play a role in preventing adhesions. We report preparation and characterization of liquid nanoparticles of Tan IIA for intravenous administration and investigate its feasibility in clinical practice. Tan IIA liquid nanoparticles (Tan IIA-NPs) were prepared using the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. Adhesions were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by injuring the parietal peritoneum and cecum, followed by intravenous administration of various Tan IIA-NP dosages. The adhesion scores for each group were collected 7 days after the initial laparotomy. The activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) was measured from the peritoneal lavage fluid. The messenger RNA and protein expression levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TGF-β1 and collagen I expressions were measured immunohistochemically in the ischemic tissues. The effects of Tan IIA-NPs and free-Tan IIA on tPA and PAI-1 were measured in vitro in TGF-β1-induced HMrSV5 cells. Tan IIA-NPs exhibited small particle size, high encapsulation efficiency, good stability for storage, and safety for intravenous administration. Tan IIA-NPs were effective in preventing adhesion. Tan IIA-NPs increased tPA activity in peritoneal lavage fluid, and tPA mRNA and protein expression, and decreased PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression in the ischemic tissues. Moreover, Tan IIA-NPs decreased TGF-β1 and collagen I expressions in the ischemic tissues. Tan IIA-NPs administered via tail veins upregulated fibrinolysis in the peritoneum. In vitro studies showed that these effects may be mediated by the TGF-β signal pathway.

Keywords: peritoneal fibrinolysis, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

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