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Effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine in moderate to severe cases of canine crotalid envenomation

Authors Leonard M, Bresee C, Cruikshank A

Received 11 June 2014

Accepted for publication 8 August 2014

Published 31 October 2014 Volume 2014:5 Pages 153—158

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S69216

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Takashi Agui


McGee J Leonard,1 Catherine Bresee,2 Andrew Cruikshank1

1Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2The Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Abstract: This is a retrospective multicenter study (2006–2012) examining a population of dogs with moderate to severe crotalid envenomation for protective effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine. Five nonacademic emergency and referral veterinary hospitals in Southern California were involved in the study and contributed records regarding a total of 82 client-owned dogs that were treated for naturally occurring rattlesnake envenomation. All dogs received antivenin (Crotalidae) polyvalent, with dosages ranging from one to three vials (mean: 1.3±0.6). Fourteen dogs (17%) had a history of prior vaccination against crotalid venom. In univariate logistic regression modeling, cases with lower body weight (P=0.0001) or higher snakebite severity scores (P<0.0001) were associated with greater morbidity. No statistically significant difference in morbidity or mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs was found. The findings of this study did not identify a significantly protective effect of previous vaccination in the cases of moderate to severe rattlesnake envenomation that require treatment with antivenin.

Keywords: rattlesnake envenomation, vaccine, antivenin, canine

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