Effects of Surface Characteristics of Polymeric Nanocapsules on the Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of Antimalarial Quinine
Received 20 August 2019
Accepted for publication 25 October 2019
Published 31 December 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 10165—10178
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo
Luana Roberta Michels,1 Tamara Ramos Maciel,1 Kelly Ayumi Nakama,1 Flavia Elizabete Guerra Teixeira,1 Felipe Barbosa de Carvalho,1 André Gundel,2 Bibiana Verlindo de Araujo,3 Sandra Elisa Haas1
1Pharmaceutical Sciences Post Graduate Program, Pharmacy Course, Federal University of Pampa, UNIPAMPA, Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil; 2Campus Bagé, Federal University of Pampa, UNIPAMPA, Bagé, RS 1650, Brazil; 3Pharmaceutical Sciences Post Graduate Program, College of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 2752, Brazil
Correspondence: Sandra Elisa Haas
Curso de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Pampa, UNIPAMPA, Uruguaiana, Brazil
Tel +55 55 39110200
Introduction: The surface charge of nanoparticles, such as nanospheres (NS) and nanocapsules (NC), has been studied with the purpose of improving the in vivo performance of drugs. The aim of this study was to develop, characterize, and evaluate the in vitro antimalarial efficacy of NCP80 and NSP80 (polysorbate coated) or NCEUD and NSEUD (prepared with Eudragit RS 100) loading quinine (QN).
Methods: Formulations were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method, followed by wide physicochemical characterization. Antimalarial activity in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice and populational pharmacokinetics (PopPK) in rats were evaluated.
Results: The formulations showed a nanometric range (between 138 ± 3.8 to 201 ± 23.0 nm), zeta potential (mV) of −33.1 ± 0.7 (NCP80), −30.5 ± 1 (UNCP80), −25.5 ± 1 (NSP80), −20 ± 0.3 (UNSP80), 4.61 ± 1 (NCEUD), 14.1 ± 0.9 (UNCEUD), 2.86 ± 0.3 (NSEUD) and 2.84 ± 0.6 (UNSEUD), content close to 100%, and good QN protection against UVA light. There was a twofold increase in the penetration of QN into infected erythrocytes with NC compared to that with NS. There was a significant increase in t1/2 for all NC evaluated compared to that of Free-QN, due to changes in Vdss. PopPK analysis showed that NCP80 acted as a covariate to Q (intercompartmental clearance) and V2 (volume of distribution in the peripheral compartment). For NCEUD, V1 and Q were modified after QN nanoencapsulation. Regarding in vivo efficacy, NCEUD increased the survival of mice unlike Free-QN.
Conclusion: Cationic nanocapsules modified the pharmacology of QN, presenting a potential alternative for malaria treatment.
Keywords: quinine, malaria, nanocapsules, nanospheres, antimalarial efficacy