Effects of low-dose ketamine infusion on remifentanil-induced acute opioid tolerance and the inflammatory response in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery
Authors Kido K, Toda S, Shindo Y, Miyashita H, Sugino S, Masaki E
Received 19 June 2018
Accepted for publication 17 December 2018
Published 17 January 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 377—385
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 5
Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael E Schatman
Kanta Kido,1 Shinichi Toda,1 Yuki Shindo,1 Hitoshi Miyashita,2 Shigekazu Sugino,3 Eiji Masaki1
1Department of Dental Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; 2Department of Oral Medicine and Surgery, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan
Purpose: Remifentanil is associated with acute opioid tolerance that can lead to increased postoperative consumption of opioid analgesics. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a low dose of ketamine prevents remifentanil-induced acute opioid tolerance and affects the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a newly recognized biomarker of inflammation.
Materials and methods: Forty patients undergoing orthognathic surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blind study and randomly assigned to intraoperative administration of one of the following anesthetic regimens: high-dose remifentanil (0.6 µg/kg/minute); low-dose remifentanil (0.2 µg/kg/minute); or high-dose remifentanil with ketamine (remifentanil 0.6 µg/kg/minute with 0.5 mg/kg ketamine just after induction followed by an intraoperative infusion of ketamine 5 µg/kg/minute until wound closure). Fentanyl by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia was used for postoperative pain control. Visual Analog Scale pain scores and fentanyl consumption were recorded in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Perioperative serum C-reactive protein level and NLR were also determined.
Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in the three study groups. There were no between-group differences in Visual Analog Scale pain scores during the study period. The high-dose remifentanil group had a significantly higher requirement for fentanyl than the other two groups. Addition of ketamine did not affect the C-reactive protein level but increased the NLR; this increase was associated with decreased fentanyl consumption.
Conclusion: High-dose intraoperative remifentanil induced postoperative acute opioid tolerance that was prevented by infusion of low-dose ketamine. Ketamine increased the postoperative NLR associated with decreased fentanyl requirement for postoperative pain control.
Keywords: acute tolerance, central sensitization, NMDA receptor, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio, remifentanil
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]