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Effectiveness of Diabetes Self-Management Educational Programs For Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients In Middle East Countries: A Systematic Review

Authors Mikhael EM, Hassali MA, Hussain SA

Received 30 September 2019

Accepted for publication 22 October 2019

Published 13 January 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 117—138


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Antonio Brunetti

Ehab Mudher Mikhael, 1, 2 Mohamed Azmi Hassali, 2 Saad Abdulrahman Hussain 3

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; 2Department of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia; 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, Iraq

Correspondence: Ehab Mudher Mikhael Email

Aim: This review study aimed to determine the effectiveness and factors affecting the success of DSME programs in T2DM patients living in ME countries.
Methods: An extensive manual literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar for clinical trials assessing the effect of diabetes self-management education (DSME) for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Middle East countries. Information from the included studies was summarized in relation to study population, sample size, duration of follow-up, characteristics of DSME program, and follow-up time, besides in addition to parameters used in assessment, results, and conclusions. The risk of bias in the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The effect of DSME on clinical and patient-reported outcomes was measured by calculation of the percentage of DSME studies that produce a significant improvement in these outcomes for patients in intervention group as compared to those in control group. Additionally, the effect of DSME on each clinical outcome was assessed by calculating the mean for the absolute effect of DSME on that outcome.
Results: Twelve studies were included in this review. Heterogeneity was found among included studies in terms of DSME program characteristics, the enrolled patients, duration of follow-up, assessment methods, and obtained outcomes. All clinical glycemic outcomes (glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting, and non-fasting blood glucose), lipid profile (total cholesterol and triglycerides), and body mass index were significantly improved for patients in intervention group as compared to those in control group in at least 60% of the included studies. All patients’ reported outcomes (medication adherence, self-management behavior, knowledge, self-efficacy, health belief and quality of life) were significantly improved by the DSME program.
Conclusion: DSME programs are highly effective in improving glycemic control, lipid profile and BMI, and modestly effective in improving BP. Thus, they can reduce the risks of developing diabetes complications. Patient diabetes knowledge, DSM behaviors, adherence to medications, self-efficacy, and quality of life can also be significantly improved by DSME.

Keywords: diabetes self-management education, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Middle East countries

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