Effectiveness of Clinical, Surgical and Percutaneous Treatment to Prevent Cardiovascular Events in Patients Referred for Elective Coronary Angiography: An Observational Study
Received 30 January 2020
Accepted for publication 26 May 2020
Published 16 July 2020 Volume 2020:16 Pages 285—297
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Konstantinos Tziomalos
Adriana Silveira Almeida,1 Sandra C Fuchs,1,2 Felipe C Fuchs,1,2 Aline Gonçalves Silva,1 Marcelo Balbinot Lucca,1 Samuel Scopel,1 Flávio D Fuchs1,2
1Postgraduate Studies Program in Cardiology, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Division of Cardiology, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Correspondence: Adriana Silveira Almeida, Av Alegrete,423 Ap 1401, Porto Alegre, RS CEP 90460-100, Brazil
Tel +55 51 996510255
Purpose: To ascertain the most appropriate treatment for chronic, stable, coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients submitted to elective coronary angiography.
Patients and Methods: A total of 814 patients included in the prospective cohort study were referred for elective coronary angiography and were followed up on average for 6± 1.9 years. Main outcomes were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke and late revascularization and their combinations as major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE): MACCE-1 included cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and stroke; MACCE-2 was MACCE-1 plus late revascularization. Survival curves and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between the type of treatment and outcomes.
Results: All-cause death was lower in participants submitted to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (0.41, 0.16– 1.03, P=0.057) compared to medical treatment (MT). Coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) had an overall trend for poorer outcomes: cardiovascular death 2.53 (0.42– 15.10), combined cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and stroke 2.15 (0.73– 6.31) and these events plus late revascularization (2.17, 0.86– 5.49). The corresponding numbers for PCI were 0.27 (0.05– 1.43) for cardiovascular death, 0.77 (0.32– 1.84) for combined cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and stroke and 2.35 (1.16– 4.77) with the addition of late revascularization. These trends were not influenced by baseline blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction and previous MI. Patients with diabetes mellitus had a significantly higher risk of recurrent revascularization when submitted to PCI than CABG.
Conclusion: Patients with confirmed CAD in elective coronary angiography do not have a better prognosis when submitted to CABG comparatively to medical treatment. Patients treated with PCI had a trend for the lower incidence of combined cardiovascular events, at the expense of additional revascularization procedures. Patients without significant CAD had a similar prognosis than CAD patients treated with medical therapy.
Keywords: stable coronary artery disease, SYNTAX score, coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial revascularization
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