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Effective heating of magnetic nanoparticle aggregates for in vivo nano-theranostic hyperthermia

Authors Wang C, Hsu CH, Li Z, Hwang LP, Lin YC, Chou PT, Lin YY

Received 4 May 2017

Accepted for publication 21 June 2017

Published 28 August 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 6273—6287

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S141072

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Chencai Wang,1 Chao-Hsiung Hsu,1,2 Zhao Li,1 Lian-Pin Hwang,2 Ying-Chih Lin,2 Pi-Tai Chou,2 Yung-Ya Lin1

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR) nano-theranostic hyperthermia uses magnetic nanoparticles to target and accumulate at the lesions and generate heat to kill lesion cells directly through hyperthermia or indirectly through thermal activation and control releasing of drugs. Preclinical and translational applications of MR nano-theranostic hyperthermia are currently limited by a few major theoretical difficulties and experimental challenges in in vivo conditions. For example, conventional models for estimating the heat generated and the optimal magnetic nanoparticle sizes for hyperthermia do not accurately reproduce reported in vivo experimental results. In this work, a revised cluster-based model was proposed to predict the specific loss power (SLP) by explicitly considering magnetic nanoparticle aggregation in in vivo conditions. By comparing with the reported experimental results of magnetite Fe3O4 and cobalt ferrite CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles, it is shown that the revised cluster-based model provides a more accurate prediction of the experimental values than the conventional models that assume magnetic nanoparticles act as single units. It also provides a clear physical picture: the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles increases the cluster magnetic anisotropy while reducing both the cluster domain magnetization and the average magnetic moment, which, in turn, shift the predicted SLP toward a smaller magnetic nanoparticle diameter with lower peak values. As a result, the heating efficiency and the SLP values are decreased. The improvement in the prediction accuracy in in vivo conditions is particularly pronounced when the magnetic nanoparticle diameter is in the range of ~10–20 nm. This happens to be an important size range for MR cancer nano-theranostics, as it exhibits the highest efficacy against both primary and metastatic tumors in vivo. Our studies show that a relatively 20%–25% smaller magnetic nanoparticle diameter should be chosen to reach the maximal heating efficiency in comparison with the optimal size predicted by previous models.

Keywords: nano-theranostics, hyperthermia, magnetic resonance, magnetic nanoparticle, specific loss power

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