Effect of Happiness Counseling on Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Women with Recurrent Miscarriage
Authors Elsharkawy NB, Mohamed SM, Awad MH, Ouda MMM
Received 23 October 2020
Accepted for publication 4 February 2021
Published 2 March 2021 Volume 2021:13 Pages 287—295
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Elie Al-Chaer
Nadia Bassuoni Elsharkawy,1,2 Sayeda Mohamed Mohamed,3 Mohamed Hammam Awad,4 Marwa Mohamed Ahmed Ouda1,5
1Nursing Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia; 2Maternal and Newborn Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 5Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhur University, Egypt
Correspondence: Nadia Bassuoni Elsharkawy
Nursing Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka, Jouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Email [email protected]
Purpose: This study investigated the effectiveness of a happiness counseling program on depression, anxiety, and stress in pregnant women with a history of recurrent miscarriage.
Patients and Methods: A parallel randomized controlled trial research design was used in this study, which was conducted at the high-risk inpatient unit of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Cairo University Hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. A total of 60 pregnant women who had previously experienced multiple miscarriages were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (n=30 each). The tools used for data collection were demographic and obstetric data questionnaires and the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Happiness counseling sessions were conducted for the intervention group. Data for qualitative variables were analyzed with the chi-squared test, and the Student’s t test for paired samples was used to compare mean DASS-21 scores of the intervention and control groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the association between variables.
Results: The happiness counseling sessions reduced depression, anxiety, and stress in women with recurrent miscarriage, resulting in lower mean DASS-21 scores for the intervention group compared to the control group.
Conclusion: The happiness counseling program had a positive effect on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in women with recurrent miscarriage. We recommend that this program be used as an effective, low-cost, and noninvasive intervention to improve the mental health and overall wellbeing of women with recurrent miscarriage.
Keywords: happiness counseling program, depression, anxiety, stress, recurrent miscarriage
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