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Effect of dietary oils on peripheral neuropathy-related endpoints in dietary obese rats

Authors Coppey L, Davidson E, Shevalye H, Torres ME, Yorek MA

Received 6 December 2017

Accepted for publication 16 February 2018

Published 9 April 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 117—127


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou

Lawrence Coppey,1 Eric Davidson,1 Hanna Shevalye,1 Michael E Torres,1 Mark A Yorek1–4

1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2Department of Veterans Affairs Iowa City Health Care System, Iowa City, IA, USA; 3Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Affairs Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Visual Loss, Iowa City, IA, USA; 4Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary oils (olive, safflower, evening primrose, flaxseed, or menhaden) enriched in different mono unsaturated fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty acids on peripheral neuropathies in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats.
Materials and methods: Rats at 12 weeks of age were fed a high-fat diet (45% kcal) for 16 weeks. Afterward, the rats were fed diets with 50% of the kilocalories of fat derived from lard replaced by the different dietary oils. In addition, a control group fed a standard diet (4% kcal fat) and a high fat fed group (45% kcal) were maintained. The treatment period was 32 weeks. The endpoints evaluated included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal sensitivity, innervation of sensory nerves in the cornea and skin, and vascular relaxation by epineurial arterioles.
Results: Menhaden oil provided the greatest benefit for improving peripheral nerve damage caused by dietary obesity. Similar results were obtained when we examined acetylcholine-mediated vascular relaxation of epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. Enriching the diets with fatty acids derived from the other oils provided minimal to partial improvements.
Conclusion: These studies suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from fish oil could be an effective treatment for neural and vascular complications associated with obesity.

Keywords: peripheral neuropathy, fish oil, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vascular reactivity, nerve conduction velocity

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